Fishers and local managers received a slightly modified version o

Fishers and local managers received a slightly modified version of the original questionnaire: questions dealing with technical specifications of the models were omitted. Also, one questionnaire ABT-737 manufacturer was prepared and distributed to the stakeholders after the completion of the modelling work (management scenario evaluations) asking them to review and evaluate the accomplished work. The timing of the JAKFISH process fitted well in the formal ICCAT process: At about the time the JAKFISH project started, the ICCAT Scientific Committee had pointed out the necessity for the establishment of a long-term management plan for the Mediterranean swordfish

stock. When collaboration was agreed, the Scientific Committee provided a general outline of the management scenarios that should be evaluated in the JAKFISH process. This facilitated a quick, focused and pragmatic start of the case study in terms of model selection tools and model building. Uncertainties and risks were defined at a later stage during the process. The regular time frame of selleck chemicals llc ICCAT specific species-group meetings facilitated the presentation and discussion of intermediate results and consequently the overall planning of the JAKFISH work. Fishers raised questions about certain epistemic uncertainties that were not considered in the existing evaluation models due to lack of relevant scientific knowledge. Hence, the case

study did not zoom in on those uncertainties raised by the stakeholders, and C1GALT1 one could argue that in this respect the science did not entirely follow a “post-normal” approach, which would have meant to focus on a different problem framing. Instead, the case study stuck to its foreseen modelling approach, producing various management strategy simulations. This suggests that there is always the possibility that stakeholders can raise questions that cannot be addressed – independently of the modelling tools used. Through the participatory modelling process, ICCAT member states reached consensus on one specific technical measure (seasonal closure). This method emerged as having an evident link with the biology of the stock, and

it was felt that it could be agreed on between the different countries and enforced over all fishing sectors. The model simulations indicate that it can lead to stock recovery. The Nephrops case study was chosen based on two major issues: (1) differing objectives of stakeholders, and (2) high uncertainties in the science/scientific advice. 1. The Nephrops sub-group of the North Sea RAC were in the process of drafting a long term management plan (LTMP) for the fishery, which could subsequently assist in efforts to gain accreditation from the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), whose “pre-assessment” process had highlighted the need for a formal management plan). However, the different fishery stakeholders have been struggling with agreeing on objectives for the fishery.

A thrombus is formed by the aggregation of platelets on the fibri

A thrombus is formed by the aggregation of platelets on the fibrin clot mesh. Because of its ability to induce fibrinolysis, Batroxase reduced the size of an “in vitro” induced thrombus in a 50 μg treatment after 24 hours of incubation, and it completely degraded the thrombus in a 100 μg. With the same amounts, Leucurolysin-a from Bothrops leucurus ( Gremski et al., 2007) was also able

to dissolve a thrombus “in vitro”, with the maximal activity observed for a 100 μg treatment. Batroxase did not affect human platelet aggregation by the agonist ADP. This characteristic capacity has been reported for other PI-class SVMPs, such as Neuwiedase from Bothrops neuwiedi ( Rodrigues et al., 2001) because this class contains only a proteolytic domain. PII class SVMPs possess the proteolytic domain and a disintegrin domain that contains an RGD site that enables Metabolism inhibitor Venetoclax manufacturer interactions with other integrins on platelet surface, thereby preventing platelet aggregation by agonists ( Calvette et al., 1991). In the PIII class SVMPs, such as in Basparin

A from Bothrops asper ( Loría et al., 2003), an additional cysteine-rich domain further facilitates platelet aggregation. Several snake venom metalloproteinases are capable of inducing an incoagulable plasma condition because of their ability to consume plasma coagulation factors (Kamigutti, 2005). Similar to other PI-class SVMPs, Batroxase did not induce plasma coagulation, which facilitates the hemorrhagic process. The primary sequence of Batroxase was determined by N-terminal amino acid sequencing by automatic Edman degradation, and the digested peptides Ergoloid obtained by trypsin proteolysis were sequenced by mass spectrometry. These analyses indicated that

Batroxase is composed of 202 amino acids. Additionally, a primary structure analysis showed that Batroxase lacks N-glycosylation sites (N-X-S/T); its zinc-binding motif (HELGHNLGISH) is fully conserved when compared with that of other SVMPs; and it contains a C164I165 M166 motif associated with a “Met-turn”. PI-class SVMPs may be sub-characterized according to disulfide bridge content (Fox and Serrano, 2005); PIa proteins such as HT-2 from Crotalus ruber ruber, have two disulfide bridges, whereas PIb proteins such as Fibrolase from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix and Lebetase from Vipera lebetina ( Bello et al., 2006) have three disulfide bridges. Batroxase presented seven cysteine residues that are fully conserved with those in the other metalloproteinases, with matching such as Cys117–Cys197, Cys157–Cys181 and Cys159–Cys164. According to our tertiary structure analyses, Batroxase forms an α-β-α fold that is stabilized by three disulfide bridges (above) similar to those of other class PI SVMPs (Gomis-Rüth et al., 1994, Gong et al., 1998 and Akao et al., 2010) (Fig. 8).

8A) When the biofilms were maintained in contact with


8A). When the biofilms were maintained in contact with

the Cur for 5 and 20 min of incubation, brighter fluorescence was observed after 20 min of incubation ( Fig. 7B, D and F), suggesting that Cur penetration into the cells of the biofilm after 20 min might have achieved greater amounts than after 5 min. The drugs need to effectively penetrate the extracellular matrix to ensure the occurrence of intimate contact with the microorganisms. For these reasons, in all the P+L+ groups, 20 min of PIT promoted the highest Compound C reductions in cell viability. C. albicans seemed to be the only species whose cell viabilities were clearly dependent on PIT after 4 and 8 min of irradiation. The C. albicans biofilms submitted to PDT showed higher reduction in cell viability after 20 min of PIT (p < 0.01). When PIT was reduced, cell viability was also reduced proportionally. Cell viability of C. dubliniensis biofilms after 8 min of irradiation was PIT-dependent. However, C. dubliniensis biofilms after 4 min Depsipeptide solubility dmso of irradiation, and C. glabrata biofilms (after 4 and 8 min of irradiation) showed no clear tendency to be PIT-dependent, although 1 and 20 min of

PIT, respectively, resulted in the worst and best results. The morphology of the microorganisms seems to have great importance in PDT. A survey by Jackson et al. 26 evaluated whether the hyphae and yeasts forms of C. albicans could be killed by PDT. The results demonstrated that both forms are susceptible to photosensitisation. However, hyphal forms presented OSBPL9 higher susceptibility to PDT than the yeasts. In the present study, the biofilms were grown in RPMI 1640, which induces hyphae formation. 19C. albicans and C dubliniensis are dimorphic fungi (ovoid yeasts and/or filaments). 12, 18 and 52 On the other hand, C. glabrata presents itself as a single

morphological species and does not transform itself into hyphae. 53 Therefore, considering the possibility that within each PIT, Cur is able to reach the same depth in the biofilms of the three species, fungi that were transformed into hyphae and were sensitised with Cur might have been more susceptible to the phototoxic effects of PDT. This might justify the fact that C. glabrata was the only species that did not present a clear tendency to be PIT-dependent under any of the evaluated conditions. Due to structural and biological differences, different behaviours are expected from distinct Candida strains. C. glabrata produces adhesins capable of promoting adhesion to buccal epithelial cells. 18 It also has high hydrophobicity values and efficient co-adhesion mechanisms, which allows cells to bind to other cells. 54 In addition, the C. glabrata biofilm matrix has higher amounts of both proteins and carbohydrates. 53 Thus, it is possible that drug penetration through the C.

Extracts collected from different blooms as well as different par

Extracts collected from different blooms as well as different parts of world may contain also other components of cyanotoxins, having different profiles of toxicity. O. niloticus was susceptible to genotoxicity of an extract of Microcystis collected in a water FK866 chemical structure bloom during the dry season. Induction of micronucleated cells was observed only at higher concentration through body exposure. No micronucleus increases were found with treatments

via ip. According to Gaudin et al. (2008), genotoxicity caused by MCs could be variable in different organs of mice, such as blood, liver, kidney, colon and intestine, and it also depends on the administration route. Apoptosis-necrosis analysis to study cell viability and mode of cell death induced by toxins using double fluorescent stain is rapid, repeatable and easy to perform. Brockmann et al. (2006) showed that apoptosis PI3K inhibitor starts at much lower concentrations than cytotoxic concentrations when cells are exposed to genotoxic compounds. Intraperitoneal injection is an inappropriate route for fish models in genotoxicity studies, although normally, ip injections give a more precise exposure level to the studied toxins and show a better response than

aquatic exposure. Our results showed differences in genotoxicity comparing ip injection with body exposure. Ip injection induced comets, but not MN. Thus, we should be more conservative in the evaluation of MC’s genotoxicity due to an uncommon route of exposure.

In this case, the ip injection was probably very toxic, causing inhibition of cell divisions, so that micronuclei were not observed. On the other hand, comets followed by ip injection were found because these did not need cell divisions. The comet assay has been successfully applied in laboratory and field conditions as a non-specific, sensitive, rapid and economical biomarker for detection of genetic damage in natural biota ( Jha, 2008). This author suggested also that comet assay is capable of detecting oxidized DNA bases in fish exposed to environmental contaminants. Our results are in accordance with this purpose. Otherwise, we should Celecoxib also consider that the tested crude cyanobacterial extract can contain other components, besides MCs. Induction of comet cells occurred probably due to DNA strand breaks caused by oxidative stress induced by MCs. Exposure of cells to genotoxic compounds induces apoptosis by a mechanism that is initiated by DNA damage. In contrast, necrosis can be started by non-specific external stimuli, such as ischemia, trauma, infection, cell membrane break or any kind of cell disruption. Our data showed that a microcystic extract, when in low concentrations, could activate cellular oxidative stress, causing genotoxicity, as proposed by many authors and cited above.

Tanabe Eiichiro Tanoue C Teodora Satta Benoit Thibodeau Trevor T

Tanabe Eiichiro Tanoue C. Teodora Satta Benoit Thibodeau Trevor Tolhurst Moshe Tom Ashley Townsend Inci Tuney R.E. Turner Nandipha Twatwa Niklas Tysklind Karl Ugland

Richard Unsworth Ron van der Oost Peter van Veld Jan Vanaverbeke Vitor Vasconcelos Maite Vazquez-Luis Tomas Vega Fernandez Mahalakshmi Venkatesan Luigi Vezzulli Aldo Viarengo Penny Vlahos An-Li Wang Yonghua Wang Liesbeth Weijs Clive Wilkinson Stefan Williams Scott Wilson Isaac Wirgin Maria Wlodarska-Kowalczuk X. Xia Peng Xia Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia Muhmad Yusuf Y. Zuo “
“Man is increasingly intervening in the near-shore marine environment through activities including coastal protection/reclamation, marine-aquaculture, marina-development and the deployment of marine renewable energy devices (MREDs) (Alexander et al., 2012). The scale of the potential MRED Metformin solubility dmso development is considerable, for example, the UK is projecting a 46 GW offshore wind capacity in its territorial waters (Anon, 2012) which equates to approximately one third of Europe’s projected capacity of 150 GW by 2030 (EWEA, 2013). One hundred and fifty GW is equivalent to a staggering 30,000–50,000 wind-turbines based on a standard 3–5 MW per device (the London Array wind turbines are 3.6 MW per device; Anon, 2014). In addition to offshore wind developments there is interest in deploying wave- and

tidal-devices and all such developments will be supported by infrastructure that includes sub-stations, meteorological masts and cabling. MREDS, and medroxyprogesterone their supporting infrastructure, will be deployed over a wide range

click here of water depths and sediment types including clays, muds, silts and fine sands (Table 6 in Linley et al., 2007). There is likely to be greater future overlap between offshore renewables and fine muddy sediments as the wind-industry moves further offshore and into deeper water (e.g. UK ‘Round 3’ sites; The Crown Estate, 2013). MREDs will act as de-facto artificial reefs by providing attachment points for encrusting fauna and flora and shelter from tidal flows ( Miller et al., 2013). Whilst MREDs are not classified as artificial reefs, because their primary function is not to emulate a natural reef in some way ( Anon, 1997), much artificial-reef impact research is directly relevant to their likely impacts. Once placed on the seabed man-made structures, of any type, interact immediately with the local current regime. This hydrographic interaction may result in the acceleration or baffling of flow around the structures, the formation of various types of vortices and the generation of turbulence and wave breaking ( Ali-Albouraee, 2013 and Sumer et al., 2001). Such hydrographic interactions potentially affect both the particulate transport around reefs and the associated epibenthic and infaunal assemblages (see below). Research into the broader effects of artificial reefs on their surrounding sediment is limited and contradictory: Fabi et al., 2002 and Guiral et al.

Creatinine assays relying on both the Jaffe and enzymatic methods

Creatinine assays relying on both the Jaffe and enzymatic methods are now standardized to a material PLX-4720 datasheet characterized by a gold standard method, IDMS-traceable method. Many of the equations evaluated herein used an enzymatic IDMS-traceable creatinine method, which is what we use at our institution. The Gao et al12 Scr-only equation is based on a Jaffe IDMS-traceable method, and we found this equation, using our creatinine values, to have high agreement with mGFR. The methodological differences noted between cystatin C assays lead to similar limitations that were historically experienced with

creatinine and various eGFR equations. Efforts are now underway to calibrate different cystatin C methods to a single traceable reference material. The first report of a virtually assay-independent simple cystatin C-based eGFR equation based on calibration of different methods to an international reference material was recently published.35 In the present study, our laboratory used a PETIA method on the Roche Cobas 6000 e501. Most of the equations evaluated reportedly used a PENIA method, most commonly that on the Siemens Bulk Nanocrystallized Ingot Iron platform. Hansson et al36 showed in a comparison of 180 patient

samples that Passing-Bablok regression analyses yielded a slope of 0.904 and intercept of 0.21 with regression coefficient of 0.9343 for cystatin C measured by Roche Cobas e501 cystatin C PETIA and Siemens Akt cancer Bulk Nanocrystallized Ingot Iron PENIA. Despite the limitations because of analytical differences among methods, we have shown that the combination of creatinine and cystatin C improves accuracy to mGFR. The primary strength of this study is that it compares performance of 14 published eGFR equations in pediatric patients evaluated against an accurate and precise mGFR method in the routine clinical setting. The effects

of different variables in the eGFR formulas were compared using a rigorous analytic plan to test the formulas against mGFR. Different analytic methods demonstrated similar results for performance of each equation. No previous study has specifically assessed the comparison of these comprehensive equations in this age group. The limitations of this study include a relatively small sample of subjects, and the analysis was not based on CKD stage, owing to a relatively small number expected in some groups. However, in data shown from the scatterplot regression analyses, a stronger correlation can be seen with worsening CKD stage than in CKD stage 1, especially for the 2 Schwartz multivariate equations. Alternatively, the high overall correlation suggests that it would not have been different by differing stage of CKD with greater patient numbers within the lower bounds of mGFR. The multivariate eGFR equations performed in a superior fashion than the univariate equations.

When ATZD was added at the same time as the PHA stimulation (in c

When ATZD was added at the same time as the PHA stimulation (in culture start, 0 h), the cells were exposed in the G1 stage. To obtain a sufficient number of analysable metaphases, colchicine was added at a final concentration of 0.0016%, 2 h prior to harvesting. The cells were harvested by centrifugation, treated with 0.075 M KCl Selleckchem NVP-BGJ398 at 37 °C for 20 min, centrifuged and fixed in 1:3 (v/v) acetic acid:methanol. Finally, the slides were prepared, air-dried and stained with a 3% Giemsa solution (pH 6.8) for 8 min (Moorhead et al., 1960). The slides were analysed with a light microscope; the structural and numerical CAs were examined during metaphase in the ATZD-treated IDO inhibitor cultures

and the respective controls. The frequency of CAs (in 100 metaphases per culture) and the mitotic index (MI, number of metaphases per 2.000 lymphocytes per culture) were determined. The ability of ATZD to

inhibit telomerase action was measured by determining telomere length using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with probes to telomeric sequences (TELO-FISH), as described by Lansdorp (1995) and Lansdorp et al. (1996). Short-term lymphocyte cultures were initiated according to a standard protocol (Preston et al., 1987) and were fixed (methanol: acetic acid, 3:1) on slides. The slides were hybridised with the pan telomeric Star FISH probe. The measurement of telomere length determined in each nucleus, was acquired using the image capturing software Applied Special Imaging

analysis system. The images were processed using the TFL-TELO software following the protocol (Poon et al., 1999). The data are presented as the means ± standard error of the mean of n experiments. The differences among experimental groups were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Newman–Keuls test (p < 0.05). All analyses were carried out using the GRAPHPAD programme (Intuitive Software for Science, San Diego, California, USA). Human colon carcinoma HCT-8 cells were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml of ATZD for 12- and/or 24-h and analysed in three different assays (trypan blue dye Sclareol exclusion, propidium iodide exclusion and BrdU incorporation). ATZD reduced the proliferation of HCT-8 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. After a 12-h incubation, cell proliferation was reduced at higher concentration tested, which was confirmed by trypan blue dye exclusion and propidium iodide exclusion (p < 0.05, Figs. 2A, C). After a 24-h incubation, ATZD reduced cell number (p < 0.05) at all concentrations tested using trypan blue dye exclusion ( Fig. 2B), propidium iodide exclusion ( Fig. 2D) and BrdU incorporation ( Fig. 3). m-AMSA, the positive control, also reduced HCT-8 cell proliferation.

Human chorionic gonadotropin 116 (N < 5) and CA 15 3 = 74 4 U/ml

Human chorionic gonadotropin 116 (N < 5) and CA 15.3 = 74.4 U/ml (N < 31); all other tumour markers (PSA, α-fetoprotein, CA 19.9 and CEA) within normal range. Normal urinalysis. Cardiac tests showed the following: (1) EKG – normal; (2) cardiac ultrasound displaying good left ventricle global systolic function; diastolic dysfunction; no valve abnormalities; mild biatrial dilation; dilated right ventricle with preserved systolic function; IVC within normal limits, preserved inspiratory collapse; no intra-chamber

thrombi or tumour. PI3K assay Radiologic exams revealed: (1) chest radiograph – normal; (2) venous ultrasound and Doppler of the lower limbs; (3) thoracic CT-angiogram and (4) abdominal and pelvic CT scan. The last three exams lead to the following

diagnoses: (A) residual superficial venous thrombosis of the right basilic vein, maintaining deep venous (humeral and axillary) system permeability; (B) deep venous thrombosis of the right posterior tibial and calf veins, with normal popliteal, common femoral, superficial femoral vein, great saphenous and small saphenous vein permeability; left lower limb venous system with no lesions; (C) anterior segmental pulmonary embolism in the right upper lobe and the internal segmental branch of the ipsilateral inferior lobe; (D) enlarged liver with several images compatible with metastases (Fig. 1); and (E) infiltrative lesion of the pancreatic uncinate process, involving the superior mesenteric vessels and thus becoming inoperable (Fig. 2). He was treated with subcutaneous XL184 chemical structure enoxaparin 60 mg bid, q12 h, with subsequent improvement. The patient was then transferred to the Lisbon Portuguese Oncology Institute, where he had an endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver and pancreas that confirmed a pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Fig. 3) with hepatic metastases (Fig. 4). In order to safely undergo these biopsies enoxaparin was withheld during 24 h. About 3 days after low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was stopped the patient suffered a severe ischaemic

stroke leaving him with right-side hemiplegia. Progressive deterioration in neurologic status quickly ensued and the patient eventually GABA Receptor died a few days afterwards. No autopsy was made. The combination of conventional tumour markers, endoscopic methods and the most recent radiologic means including positron-emitting tomography (PET scan) allow us to correctly diagnose the malignancy behind TS in about 85–95% of cases.9 We stress the pivotal need – as we approach these patients in medical wards – to quickly and correctly identify the origin and histology of the underlying neoplasm, because TS is a quite serious clinical condition, and even though it is usually associated with advanced-stage cancer, there are also rare events when it helps to uncover cancer in an early phase and treat it, allowing for a better prognosis.

However, the probability of such events is rather high: there are

However, the probability of such events is rather high: there are previous records in a similar semi-enclosed system of higher DA concentrations, up to 6.55 μg g− 1, being measured in shellfish

tissue, and which had been preceded by Pseudo-nitzschia blooms ( Ujević et al. 2010). The presence of another potentially toxin-producing phytoplankton species, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum ( Fig. 8f) has also been noted. The identity of the species has been confirmed by morphological selleck screening library examination of the flagellar pore complex ( Monti et al. 2010). Since this is a red-tide species, known for its regular formation of summer blooms in the eutrophic areas in the Adriatic, we cannot rule out the potential occurrence of biomass peaks of this species in Boka Kotorska Bay. The discovery of potentially toxic phytoplankton species such as

P. pseudodelicatissima and P. minimum point to the importance of more intensive research into and BKM120 the monitoring of potential blooms of harmful algae occurring in the area, as these will affect active shellfish farming activities. We are grateful to P. Wassmann and B. Ćosović, NCPWB project leaders, and also to the other project participants (J. Dautović, S. Strmečki, Z. Zovko, N. Malovrazić), who helped with the fieldwork and laboratory analyses, and to M. Ahel for the laboratory HPLC analysis. S. B. is also extremely grateful to Zlata Barbić (INA, Zagreb) for her help with the use of SEM, to Lucija Horvat (IRB, Zagreb)

Dichloromethane dehalogenase for her help with TEM, and to Diana Sarno (SZN Naples) for her valuable suggestions on phytoplankton taxonomy. We also wish to express our gratitude to two anonymous referees who provided valuable comments on the manuscript. “
“Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a global problem for human health, fisheries and the aquatic environment (Anderson 1997). Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Hara & Chihara, a member of the Raphidophyceae, is one of the main bloom-forming phytoplankters. H. akashiwo causes brown or purplish red tide blooms in temperate to subtropical eutrophic coastal waters worldwide ( Livingston, 2007, Kempton et al., 2008, Shikata et al., 2008 and Rensel et al., 2010). Considered an ichthyotoxic alga ( Yang et al. 1995, Khan et al. 1996, Tomas et al. 2001), it has caused severe fish mortality with significant damage to the mariculture economy in several countries ( Tiffany et al., 2001 and Kempton et al., 2008). Although the exact killing mechanisms are somewhat unclear, there are several toxicity mechanisms in raphidophytes, including the production of brevetoxin-like compounds ( Khan et al. 1997), reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide ( Yang et al., 1995, Oda et al.

22 However, overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as

22 However, overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, or interferon-γ, as well as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1/growth differentiation factor 15 (MIC-1/GDF-15) appear to be involved.23 and 24 Activation of these factors has effects on peripheral (lipolysis, proteolysis, insulin resistance) as well as on central

pathways (hypothalamic appetite regulation).23 and 25 Megestrol acetate, a synthetic, orally active derivative of the hormone progesterone, was originally synthesized in 1963 as a contraceptive drug.26 Beginning in 1967, it was used in the treatment of breast cancer. Beginning in 1993, it was approved in the United States and in several European countries for the treatment of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome.26 It has recently been argued that the use of megestrol acetate also may be helpful in patients with muscle wasting without weight loss.15 Wen et al27 recently studied 102 patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome who Panobinostat price were randomly

assigned to receive, for 8 weeks, either a combination therapy of oral megestrol acetate at a dosage of 160 mg twice daily plus oral thalidomide 50 mg twice daily or megestrol acetate 160 mg twice daily alone (all studies discussed in the text are summarized in Table 1). Patients in either group showed an increase in their appetite score (both P < .03). The increase in body weight and the improvement in quality of life were more pronounced in the group that received combination therapy than in the group on megestrol acetate alone. Serum values of IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor decreased only in the combination Tenoxicam therapy group, just as handgrip strength was only improved in this group. 27 Another small study 28 used a combination therapy of oral formoterol

(80 μg/d) and megestrol acetate tablets (480 mg/d) for up to 8 weeks in 13 patients with advanced malignancy and involuntary weight loss. Six of 7 patients who completed the study showed an improvement in muscle size and muscle function as assessed using quadriceps strength and magnetic resonance imaging. In fact, quadriceps volume increased significantly (P < .02); in addition, there was a trend toward an increase in the patients’ quadriceps and handgrip strength. 28 Just as with thalidomide, several workers have tried to enhance the effects of megestrol acetate on appetite using different approaches. L-carnitine, for example, plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.29 Madeddu et al30 randomized 60 patients with advanced cancer at any site and weight loss of at least 5% to receive either L-carnitine 4 g per day plus celecoxib 300 mg per day or the same regimen plus megestrol acetate 320 mg per day.