In addition, thrombospondin-1 and -2 as angiostatic mediators in RA and also endogenous angiostatic factors, such as angiostatin, endostatin,
IL-4, IL-13, IFNs and some angiostatic chemokines, are also produced within the rheumatoid synovium.[37, 67-69] Rheumatoid T cells promote VEGF, TNF-α and chemokine production in the synovium. VEGF is secreted by T cells following the stimulation by specific antigens or by IL-2 and by hypoxia; thus, activated T cells might enhance angiogenesis. Hypoxia also induces the VEGFR-2 expression in T cells, suggesting that T cells might respond to VEGF. Indeed, VEGF augments IFN-γ and inhibits IL-10 secretion by T cells responding to mitogen or antigen. Thus, T cells can play a role in angiogenesis by delivering VEGF to inflammatory sites, and VEGF can augment pro-inflammatory
T cell differentiation and enhance Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library ic50 Th1 phenotype expansion.[70, 71] Macrophages are differentiated from peripheral-blood monocytes. Both monocytes and synovial macrophages are key players in RA. These cells are involved EPZ015666 concentration in the initiation and perpetuation of inflammation, leukocyte adhesion and migration, matrix degradation and angiogenesis. Macrophages express adhesion molecules, chemokine receptors and other surface antigens. Activated macrophages produce many molecules, such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β and MMPs, thus they can promote the re-epithelization.
Macrophages are the main cell type which releases TGF-β cytokine. TGF-β stimulates neovascularization through attracting macrophages Megestrol Acetate and increasing the production of many growth factors that act on ECs. In addition several proteinases, including cathepsin G, are produced by macrophages during RA-associated inflammatory and angiogenic events. Angiogenesis is an early and critical event in the pathogenesis of RA. Monocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes fully participate in the angiogenesis process via their different cytokines, which play an essential role in angiogenesis and can control this complex process. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1 stimulate synovial fibroblasts and other cells to release VEGF; also other cytokines, including IL-6, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-18 act indirectly on angiogenesis by promoting VEGF production. TNF-α promotes neovascularization and it may also regulate capillary formation via VEGF, Ang-1 and -2 and their receptors, Tie-2. TNF-α induces HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) to proliferate and form new blood vessels. Thus, TNF-induced neovascularization plays a critical role in rheumatic disease pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies TNF-induced angiogenesis is largely unknown. IL-6 can act synergistically with TNF-α and IL-1 to induce the production of VEGF.