Dextran (Dex), sell

Dextran (Dex), polysialic acid (PSA), hyaluronic acid (HA), chitosan (CH), and heparin are the most used natural polysaccharides. Synthetic polymers

include polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyacrylamide (Pam), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and PEG-based copolymers such as poloxamers, poloxamines, and polysorbates. 2.2.1. PEG Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the polymer of choice to produce stealth nanocarriers. This neutral, flexible, and hydrophilic material Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical can in fact properly produce surface barrier layers that reduce the adhesion of opsonins present in the blood serum on the nanoparticles making them “invisible” to phagocytic cells. The protein repulsion operated by PEG was also visualized by freeze-fracture transmission

electron microscopy (TEM) [29]. A few physical protocols have been adopted to coat nanoparticle with PEG [22], even though these procedures entail the risk of polymer desorption in the blood with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical consequent loss of the beneficial contribution of the polymer [30]. In order to overcome this problem, covalent PEG conjugation protocols have been developed [31, 32]. Biodegradable nanoparticles with PEG covalently bound to the surface have been produced using PEG derivatives of poly(lactic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical acid), poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) [33], or poly(alkylcyanoacrylates) [34]. The nanoparticles are prepared by emulsion, precipitation, or dispersion protocols in aqueous media. These procedures allow for the PEG orientation toward Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the water phase, while the biodegradable hydrophobic polymer fraction is physically entangled in the inner nanoparticle matrix [22]. Alternatively, PEG chains may be covalently conjugated to preformed nanoparticles through surface functional groups [35, 36]. 2.2.2. Poloxamine and Poloxamer Poloxamines (Tetronics) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and poloxamers (Pluronics) are selleck chemicals llc amphiphilic block copolymers consisting of hydrophilic blocks of ethylene

oxide (EO) and hydrophobic blocks of propylene oxide (PO) monomer units. Urease Poloxamers are a-b-a type triblock copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO) while poloxamines are tetrablock copolymers of PEO-PPO connected through ethylenediamine bridges [(PEO-PPO)2–N–CH2–CH2–N–(PPO-PEO)2] [37–39]. These polymers can be physically adsorbed on the nanocarrier surface through the hydrophobic PPO fraction [22]. Following intravenous injection to mice and rats, poloxamer- or poloxamine-coated sub-200nm poly(phosphazene) [40], PLGA nanoparticles [41], and liposomes [42, 43] did not show prolonged circulation time as compared to the uncoated counterparts. This unexpected behaviour was ascribed to the desorption of the polymers from the nanocarrier surface [30] as well as to the polymer capacity to adsorb opsonins [44].

Starting from a single-sided thoracoscopic procedure with a monop

Starting from a single-sided thoracoscopic procedure with a monopolar energy source on the beating heart, we were initially confronted with the surgical and technical limitations of the ablation devices and the procedure. A simultaneous endocardial approach seemed mandatory to understand the limitations of our minimally invasive approach. Initially setting up this collaboration with the electrophysiologist was challenging. Some

of the obstacles we had to overcome were: trying to understand our common goals, organizing the availability of the different multidisciplinary teams, criteria for selection of patients, deciding where Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the procedure should be performed, and the sequence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the procedure. Evaluation of our findings acutely and over time

has made necessary several changes to our approach and choice of ablation technologies and devices. This could only be achieved through a genuinely open-minded team approach that remained critical regarding the achieved success and also a willingness to take a retrospective view to compare this new approach to other more standard procedures. SINGLE-SESSION HYBRID PROCEDURE VERSUS PERCUTANEOUS CATHETER ABLATION The reported success rate of percutaneous catheter ablation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a single procedure ranges from50% to 80%.These results are even lower for patients with persistentatrial fibrillation (30% to 50%). The differences in success rates could be explained by a variety of reasons, including the experience of the center, the ablation strategy, the technology, the follow-up criteria, and other variables. A major concern is the significant recurrence rate after

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical initial complete GDC 973 pulmonary vein electrical isolation, necessitating repeat interventions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to achieve long-term cure of atrial fibrillation (even in high-volume centers). Recovered pulmonary vein conduction after initial acute circumferential pulmonary electrical isolation is the dominant rationale for recurrent atrial fibrillation and atrial tachyarrhythmias.15 The problem of durability of contiguous and transmural ablation lines in percutaneous transvenous endocardial procedures is related to multiple factors: the procedure is performed with the help of virtual imaging (fluoroscopy and three-dimensional mapping) Resminostat limiting actual anatomical accuracy; the permanent tissue effects of ablation will depend on adequate and stable catheter tip to tissue contact; and the actual necessary parameters of energy delivery are difficult to define in an environment of circulating blood. These issues can be addressed by epicardial application of a bipolar radiofrequency clamping device and should therefore result in more consistent antral lesions and isolation of the pulmonary veins. With an epicardial approach, direct anatomical visualization and stable device tip to tissue contact are obtained.

First, it is clear that both genetic and environmental etiologica

First, it is clear that both genetic and environmental etiological factors have biological consequences

early in development. For this reason, and because these consequences cannot be parsed out into their purely genetic and purely environmental components, we have reformulated MeehPs view that schizotaxia represents only the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. In our view, schizotaxia results from a combination of both genetic and environmental etiologies. Because it may result from the effects of multiple genes and multiple environmental factors, it may be a heterogeneous condition, both clinically and etiologically. Second, the action of these etiological factors in early development Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suggests the likelihood that schizotaxia is a neurodevelopmental condition. Figure 1. reflects our view of schizotaxia as the liability for schizophrenia. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The top of the figure illustrates our premise that schizotaxia results from a combination of genetic and adverse environmental events. Consistent with the view that schizotaxia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, it is likely to involve neurobiological abnormalities, as well as clinical and neuropsychological difficulties. The middle

of the figure reflects the premise that later environmental events (eg, adverse psychosocial events, substance abuse, head injury) interact with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical schizotaxia to produce prodromal symptoms, and then schizophrenia. These events stress the inability of vulnerable individuals to compensate – cither bchaviorally or neurobiologically – to additional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical challenges, sources of stress, or, possibly, to continued maldevelopment of prefrontal areas in the second and third decades of life. The bottom portion of the figure

shows that psychosis has “toxic” effects of its own, which result Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in chronic schizophrenia and, possibly, neurodegeneration. Note that in this model, psychosis is a condition that is distinct from the predisposition to schizophrenia. As noted above, schizotaxia would thus reflect a truer expression of schizophrenia genes than would schizotaxia plus psychosis (ie, schizophrenia). Figure 1. Model of the neurodevelopmental course of schizotaxia. See text Edoxaban for details. Reproduced from reference 42: Tsuang MT. Defining alternative phenotypes for genetic studies: what can we learn from studies of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatrie Genet. 2000. In … Clinical features and treatment of schizotaxia In light of the etiological and neurodevelopmental framework discussed above, what does the schizotaxia phenotype look like? Comprehensive review of many schizotaxic features have already been published (see, for example, the issue of the Schizophrenia Bulletin Selleck INCB018424 edited by Moldin and Erlenmeyer-Kimling,43 and also reference 11).

2000) This approach is effective at stopping searching, but invo

2000). This approach is effective at stopping searching, but invokes additional neural processes related to contrast perception not necessarily utilized during the searching condition. Finally, in the context of surgical treatment planning, it is also of interest to minimize fast-changing and high-contrast images in

the task (e.g., flashing lights), as this may reduce the risk of seizure (Zifkin and Trenite 2000). The purpose of this work was to develop and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical evaluate a CVS that was capable of generating consistent activation in the basic and higher level visual areas of the brain by using a high number of distractors as well as an optimized contrast condition. We further sought an implementation that minimized overall image contrast between conditions. Finally, we aimed to fully evaluate the activation and deactivation properties of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical task throughout the entire brain. We developed a CVS based on an array of 60 blue squares and 60 red circles (120 total distractors) in which the task was to identify whether or not the array contained a blue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical circle. We analyzed images of 10 healthy volunteers scanned using fMRI with the CVS task used for stimulus. After individual and group processing,

the resulting data sets were analyzed using a nonbiased ROI approach to determine the regions of greatest activation and deactivation. The activation properties of the new task are presented in terms of activation extent and mean z-statistic across three levels of anatomy. Materials and Methods Participants Images of 10 healthy, right-handed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical volunteers were used in this study. The local

Institutional Review Board approved the use of the images in this study. Task The CVS task used in this study was based on similar tasks described in the neuropsychological and cognitive science literature (Kristjansson et al. 2002; Shen and Reingold 2003; Muggleton et Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical al. 2008; Saevarsson et al. 2008). The task was implemented in a block design paradigm consisting of two repetitions PD184352 (CI-1040) of an 8-sec rest stimulus followed by two repetitions of an 8-sec task stimulus. Each paradigm thus had 16 sec of rest followed by 16 sec of task for a total paradigm length of 32 sec. The paradigm was repeated 12 times for a total experimental time of 6 min 24 sec. An overview of the stimuli is shown in Figure ​Figure1.1. The rest stimulus (Condition 1) began with a 1-sec presentation of a single red X centered on the screen. A random array of hollow blue squares and hollow red circles was then presented. Subjects were instructed to immediately click their right index finger upon presentation of the array, causing it to be blurred so that the CCI-779 shapes could no longer be determined. The task stimulus began with a 1-sec presentation of a blue circle centered on the screen.

e , ERα and ERβ, both of which are receptors for oestradiol Rec

e., ERα and ERβ, both of which are receptors for oestradiol. Recent studies have

indicated that ERα expression is an unfavourable prognostic indicator in ESCC (33). The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize these five molecular mechanisms of disease progression, which are related to prognosis. Methods Study protocol We followed the Preferred Reporting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA guidelines where possible in performing our systematic review (34). We performed a systematic search through MEDLINE (from 1950), PubMed (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1949), Current Contents Selleckchem Olaparib Connect (from 1998), Cochrane library, Google scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science to May 2013. The search terms included “esophageal cancer”, “SOX2, OCT4, MET, IGF and oestrogen”, which

were searched as text word and as exploded medical subject headings where possible. No language restrictions were used in either the search or study selection. The reference lists of relevant articles were also searched for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical appropriate studies. A search for unpublished literature was not performed. Study selection We included studies that met the following inclusion criteria: Studies identifying the population of patients with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical esophageal cancer; Studies dealing with the association between SOX2, OCT4, MET, insulin like growth factor receptor and oestrogen with esophageal cancer. Data extraction We performed the data extraction using a standardized data

extraction form, collecting information on the publication year, study design, number of cases, total sample size, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical population type, country, continent, mean age and clinical data. The event rate and confidence intervals were calculated. Statistical analysis Pooled event rate and 95% confidence intervals were using a random effects model (35). We tested heterogeneity with Cochran’s Q statistic, with P<0.10 indicating heterogeneity, and quantified the degree of heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, which represents the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical percentage of the total variability across studies which is due to heterogeneity. I2 values of 25%, 50% and 75% corresponded to low, moderate and high degrees of Florfenicol heterogeneity respectively (36). The quantified publication bias using the Egger’s regression model (37), with the effect of bias assessed using the fail-safe number method. The fail-safe number was the number of studies that we would need to have missed for our observed result to be nullified to statistical non-significance at the P<0.05 level. Publication bias is generally regarded as a concern if the fail-safe number is less than 5n+10, with n being the number of studies included in the meta-analysis (38). All analyses were performed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis (version 2.0). Results The original search strategy 3,584 retrieved studies (Figure 1). The abstracts were reviewed and articles were selected for full-text evaluation.

Partially for this reason, Martin and colleagues more recently de

Partially for this reason, Martin and colleagues more recently developed the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ), which breaks humor into four broad categories, two of which are hypothesized to be psychologically

beneficial (so-called affiliative and self-enhancing humor) and two detrimental (aggressive and self-defeating humor).79 Numerous studies have supported the view that humor and laughter are therapeutic for relieving tension and anxiety,77,80–82 although the results are at times controversial and may show gender-specific #Duvelisib research buy keyword# differences.83–85 Nezu et al.86 reported that a sense of humor reduced stress associated with depressive symptoms, but did not significantly affect anxiety. Moran Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and colleagues85,87 also looked into this

question and found that while humorous stimuli caused only modest elevations in mood, an important buffering effect was noted when those who viewed sad stimuli were able to use Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical humor to prevent negative affect. A proposed mechanism for this cognitive effect has been described as a cognitive-affective shift created by humor in a threatening situation to decrease the feeling of intimidation and release emotion.80 Abel88 explores this shift as a part of the larger model for stress proposed by Lazarus and Folkman89 in which stress is dependent on the situation plus a person’s appraisal of the environment and ability to cope, which thus incorporates various personality Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical variables. Kuiper et al.90 investigated sense of humor as a personality variable in relation to coping with stressful life events and found that those with a greater sense of humor had more positive perceptions of difficult events and were able to distance themselves emotionally

from problems. Additionally, Kuiper et al.91 and Lefcourt et al.84 found that humor appreciation and the coping technique of “distancing”92 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were positively correlated. Later work showed evidence for humor- and emotion-focused coping strategies such as “minimization” and “reversal.”81 Abel found that there were indeed significant correlations between those with high trait sense of humor (measured Mephenoxalone with MSHS) and their perceived level of stress, though there were no differences in the number of “everyday problems” between groups. In addition, those students with a greater sense of humor were more likely to use “positive coping strategies” (assessed with the Ways of Coping Scale92) such as distancing oneself from the stressor or solving the problems causing the stress.88 While trait levels of humor appear to be important, positive coping results are not solely dependent upon having a “good sense of humor.” Yovetich et al.


Patients can be started on the initial dose as indi


Patients can be started on the initial dose as indicated in Table IV and gradually increased over a 10-to 14-day period to the modal therapeutic dose. If the patient has not responded to this dose by 3 to 4 weeks, one should consider increasing the dose again. When the first drug in this class is not effective, experienced clinicians will often either try to augment the response with another medication Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or switch to another SSRI. Table IV. Currently available antidepressants and their recommended dosages. SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; TCA, tricyclic antidepressant; MAO I, monoamine oxidase inhibitor. *A generic formulation is available. †Approved by the Food and … In Table IV, the starting, modal therapeutic, and maximum recommended doses are listed for the approved drugs by class. Other currently approved antidepressants are available in the USA include venlaf axine, mirtazapine, bupropion,

trazodone, and nef azodone. While trazodone Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is often used as an adjunctive medication for sleep problems associated with depression itself or with the use of the more alerting SSRIs, of these four drugs, only venlafaxine (with presumed dual neuronal reuptake inhibition) has emerged as comparable in overall use to the SSRIs. In fact, several Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical meta-analyses have pointed to increased efficacy when compared with fluoxetine, but not necessarily with other SSRIs (C. Nemeroff, personal communication).28,29 The antidepressant market remains a highly competitive one, with a number of pharmaceutical companies introducing selleck chemicals llc compounds that they hope will prove to have faster onset of action, produce a more complete remission, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and reduce side-effect burden, especially weight gain and sexual dysfunction. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Escitalopram (the slngle-Isomer form of cltalopram) recently received FDA approval and duloxetlne (an SNRI [serotonin and noradrenaline

uptake inhibitor] with dual reuptake inhibition of 5-HT and NE) has also been approved. It is also important to point out that several antidepressant drugs approved in Europe and Canada (eg, tianeptine, reboxetine, milnacipran, and moclobemlde) are not approved for use In the USA. Therapeutic Interest In psychostimulants these has led to studies suggesting that methylphenldate Is generally well tolerated and modestly efficacious for medically burdened depressed elders, but should only be used in the short term.30 It Is also appropriate to comment on the current status of herbal remedies for depression that currently fall outside the FDA guidelines. Although there are a number of reports pointing to the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum (Saint John’s wort) for major depression,31,32 two US trials comparing Hypericum with an SSRI and placebo have not supported this claim.

A At low power, the tumor cells show invasive growth pattern; B

A. At low power, the tumor cells show invasive growth pattern; B.

At high power, tumor cells shows feature of signet ring cells; C. Immunohistochemical stain of HER-2 in tumor … HER2 testing in gastric carcinoma opens a new promising therapeutic option for patients. The progress in molecular pathology enables understanding the biology of gastric and GEJ cancer and in discovering possible novel molecular therapy targets. These therapeutic strategies include epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cell cycle inhibitors, apoptosis promoters, and matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors. The agents targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MET and regulators of cell cycle are being integrated into therapeutic studies with the goal of improving therapeutic options for this disease (10). Molecular pathology of gastrointestinal stromaltumors Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

is one of the most common mesenchymal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, accounting for 80% of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors (10). However, they are rare with respect to all GI malignancies, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as they ZD1839 purchase constitute only 1-3% (10). At presentation, nearly half of malignant GISTs are metastatic, however less than a third Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of GISTs are classified as malignant (10). Prior to 1998, GISTs were diagnostically problematic, being mistaken for smooth muscle tumors such as leiomyoblastomas, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas (11).Electron microscopy studies in the 1970s and immunohistochemical studies in the late 1980s revealed that these tumors were in fact not derived Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from smooth muscle (11). Rather, these studies pointed to the interstitial cells of Cajal as the cell of origin

of GISTs. The interstitial cells of Cajal are the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal track. They regulate intestinal motility and peristalsis and are found in-between the autonomic nervous system and the muscular wall of the GI tract (11). These cells have immunophenotypic and ultrastructural features of smooth muscle and neuronal cells similar to GISTs (11). Like GISTs they stain positive by IHC for CD34, CD117, and DOG1 (Figure 4). Figure 4 A. H&E stained section of gastric spindle cell GIST; B. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells are diffusely positive because for CD117 with cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining (original magnification, 40×) In 1998 Hirota and colleagues published a sentinel paper showing that most GISTs harbored mutations in the c-kit gene which results in ligand-independent activation of KIT protein (12). They also showed that GISTs usually express the KIT protein, using an immunohistochemistry stain c-kit or CD117, providing pathologists with a critical diagnostic test (12).

This communication will focus on the presentation of CG in the ol

This communication will focus on the presentation of CG in the older subgroup after reviewing some features of CG that apply to all grieving adults. The case vignette of Sophia will illustrate the presentation of

CG and its successful treatment with a new specialized treatment called complicated grief therapy or CGT. Finally, new research findings and the combined use of medication will also be addressed. The annual incidence of spousal loss is 1.6% for men and 3% for women, resulting in over 800 000 new widows and widowers each year in the United States.1 Although the terms are often used interchangeably, bereavement refers to the state of having lost Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical someone emotionally important (literally meaning “robbed of something valuable”) whereas grief is an instinctual response to bereavement that includes the person’s “symptoms,” thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Seventy percent of bereaved people will cope adaptively with the pain of their loss and the restorative process to a new Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical state of function without their lost loved one, either by virtue of their own innate coping ability or

in addition to the support provided to them by family, friends, and/or spiritual leaders. Thirty percent of grievers will face a complication such as major depression (15%), post-traumatic stress disorder-PTSD (depending upon the circumstances of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical death), or complicated grief (10% to 20%).2 Major depression secondary to bereavement and CG are often comorbid, but each can also exist without the other.3 The natural course of grieving in late life When comparing grievers, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical only discernable pattern is the variability in intensity and course of grief over time with periods of relative quietude as well as periods of reactivation, like the ebb and flow of the tides. Periods of renewed intensity are often triggered by painful reminders, such as anniversary dates. The twin concepts of acute grief and integrated grief are very useful in differentiating

adaptive from complicated grievers. To assess Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical this in the context of the immediate aftermath PDK4 of the death of an important relationship, Eric Lindeman catalogued the reactions of a large group of surviving grievers of victims of the Coconut Grove Fire that killed 500 people in Boston in 1942.4 He found the similarities among grievers, outlined in Table I, that have stood the test of time in subsequent research, and these symptoms are now referred to as acute grief. The intensity of this phase can be affected by: the age of the victim; the suddenness of the death or the chronicity of Gefitinib illness leading up to the death; the quality of the relationship between the deceased and the griever; any past psychiatric history in the griever (particularly anxiety, depression, or substance abuse); coping style and the adequacy of support systems.

There were a number of replicated findings, such as the presence

There were a number of replicated findings, such as the presence of abnormal movements, higher degrees of psychopathology especially hallucinations, a greater degree of chronicity, that were potential indicators of dopamine supersensitivity in both studies. In addition, in both studies, the AIM +ve patients #Erlotinib mw randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# were unlikely to have their medication increased. It could Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be that this

reflects an understanding by the prescribing clinician that these individuals had noticeable side effects and reflects an attempt not to exacerbate them by increasing the dose of antipsychotic. In both studies patients with relapses associated with a life event subsequently experienced a more benign course of their illness. Previous research has also found that patients with life events prior to psychotic relapse were more likely to score zero on the AIM scale, more likely to experience complete symptom remission between episodes of illness and have less need for antipsychotic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical maintenance medication [Van Os et al. 1994]. In the present study, the AIM -ve patients were more likely to have their medication increased than the AIM -ve patients in the previous study, and this almost Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reached statistical significance (p = 0.06 two-tailed). Furthermore, the AIM +ve group were prescribed lower doses that the AIM -ve group, which was not found previously [Fallon and Dursun, 2011]. However, this may be because a significant

proportion of those with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical abnormal movements were prescribed oral atypical antipsychotic medications. When these medications are converted to chlorpromazine equivalent doses, they are prescribed in smaller doses than were the doses of typical antipsychotics historically. For example, olanzapine 5 mg equates to 100 mg of chlorpromazine [Woods, 2003], therefore, the maximum daily dose of olanzapine currently prescribed on license in the UK (20 mg) equates to 400 mg of chlorpromazine per day. The fifth aim was to develop the diagnostic criteria for supersensitivity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical psychosis and two main differences to Chouinard’s criteria were found in this study [Chouinard, 1990]. Firstly, withdrawal of medication

was not present Thiamine-diphosphate kinase in the sample, which is unsurprising as this was a study into patients compliant with stable doses of medication. Secondly, antipsychotics were not prescribed in high doses and evidence of tolerance was not present. This can be explained by the changes in prescribing atterns as atypical antipsychotics are now the redominant form of antipsychotic prescribed. It has been argued that the newer atypical medications are more tolerable as they produce fewer side effects [Voruganti et al. 2000]. However, in this study, patients prescribed atypical antipsychotics were as likely as patients prescribed typical antipsychotics to display AIMs, and risperidone has previously been found to induce extrapyramidal side effects comparable to haloperidol [Knable et al. 1997].