(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1370-1376,

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1370-1376, 2012″
“Background: SNX-5422 mouse Marijuana contains multiple cannabinoids. Most attention is given to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

which produces euphoria and in some cases anxiety and panic reactions. Research suggests that another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), may offset some of these effects. Thus, there is growing interest in the health consequences of the THC to CBD ratio for marijuana.

Methods: Using data from over 5000 marijuana samples in California from 1996 to 2008, we examine changes in the median THC-level, median CBD-level, and median THC:CBD-ratio.

Results: The median THC-level and median THC:CBD-ratio have dramatically increased for seizures in California, particularly north of the Mexican border.

Conclusion: Research on the consequences of the THC:CBD ratio should continue, especially as more attention is devoted to thinking about how to regulate marijuana for medical and recreational use. Researchers should also consider the lack of uniformity in the chemical composition of marijuana when evaluating its health effects. (C) 2011 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate selleck inhibitor posterior capsule opacification (PCO) development after cataract surgery in eyes with or without a history of steroid use.

SETTING: Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India.

DESIGN: Comparative case series.

METHODS: This study comprised consecutive patients with a history of steroid intake (oral, inhaled, injectable, or topical) for at least 4 months

who developed posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) (study group) and patients without a history of steroid intake with uncomplicated PSC (control group). Standardized surgery was performed in both groups. Digital retroillumination photographic documentation was performed 1 month and 1 year postoperatively. The digital images were analyzed for PCO using Evaluation Linsitinib datasheet of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) software; the entire intraocular lens (IOL) optic and the central 3.0 mm optic area were evaluated. The EPCO score and EPCO area were determined.

RESULTS: One year postoperatively, the mean EPCO score was statistically significantly higher in the study group (n = 30) than in the control group (n = 60) (0.33 +/- 0.37 [SD] versus 0.15 +/- 0.26), as was the mean EPCO area (0.323 +/- 0.36 versus 0.15 +/- 0.26) (both P<.04). Within the central 3.0 mm optic area, the mean EPCO scores (0.149 +/- 0.309 versus 0.003 +/- 0.016 P<.04) and mean EPCO area values (0.149 +/- 0.309 versus 0.003 +/- 0.016) were statistically significantly higher in the study group (P<.04).

CONCLUSION: Steroid-induced PSC was associated with a higher risk for PCO after cataract surgery at the 1-year follow-up.”
“Capillary flow of poly(vinyl chloride) plastisol was examined at low, high, and superhigh shear rates.

HbH genotype was identified in 9 individuals, representing 3 gene

HbH genotype was identified in 9 individuals, representing 3 generations, including a fetus. The high prevalence of a-thalassemia carriers together with the high rate of consanguineous marriages

could lead to a large number of individuals with HbH or even hydrops fetalis in Iranian families. Therefore, to avoid the risk of having affected offspring, carrier detection, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis would be of vital importance for individuals with low red blood cell (RBC) indices, normal iron status, and normal HbA(2) level, who are suspected to be alpha-thalassemia carriers.”
“Structural parameters have a critical impact on superconductivity in iron-based oxypnictide superconductors. SRT1720 nmr Structural evolution study was performed on Ce1-xGdxFeAsO0.84F0.16 superconductors by the analysis of the x-ray diffraction patterns with Rietveld refinement. Substitution of Gd for Ce generates internal pressure that compresses the crystal lattice. The contraction of the c axis is also indicated by the reduction of Ce/Gd-As and Ce/Gd-O/F distances, while there

is a slight increase in the As-Fe-As block size, which is compensated by a large reduction in the Ce/Gd-O/F-Ce/Gd block with Gd substitution. The diagonal Fe-As-Fe angle for Ce0.6Gd0.4FeAsO0.84F0.16, LCL161 nmr with the highest T-c among Ce1-xGdxFeAsO0.84F0.16 compounds, is 111.13 degrees. It is close to the ideal value of 109.47 degrees for the perfect FeAs tetrahedron, which is situated in the region of see more Fe-As-Fe bond angles where RFeAsO compounds tend to have the highest T-c. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565408]“
“Salmonella enterica

serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major food-borne pathogen. From a transposon insertion mutant library created previously using S. Enteritidis 10/02, one of the mutants was identified to have a 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) at least 100 times that of the parental strain in young chicks, with an attenuation in a poorly studied gene encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase, namely the aceE gene. Evaluation of the in vitro virulence characteristics of the Delta aceE::kan mutant revealed that it was less able to invade epithelial cells, less resistant to reactive oxygen intermediate, less able to survive within a chicken macrophage cell line and had a retarded growth rate compared with the parental strain. Young chicks vaccinated with 2 x 10(9) CFU of the Delta aceE::kan mutant were protected from the subsequent challenge of the parental strain, with the mutant colonized in the liver and spleen in a shorter time than the group infected with the parental strain. In addition, compared with the parental strain, the Delta aceE::kan mutant did not cause persistent eggshell contamination of vaccinated hens.

Weight, glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c), lipid profile, and blood pre

Weight, glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c), lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP) were measured pre- and post-operatively.


Fifty-eight SPK patients with functioning grafts were analyzed. Thirty-two were male. Following transplantation, mean HbA1c fell from 8.1 (+/- 1.5) to

5.2 (+/- 0.5)% (p < 0.0001), total cholesterol from CA3 research buy 5.2 (+/- 1.2) to 4.5 (+/- 1.0) mmol/L (p = 0.0004), serum triglycerides from 1.5 (+/- 0.6) to 1.1 (+/- 0.6) mmol/L (p < 0.0001), and serum creatinine from 699.3 (+/- 273.4) to 162.5 (+/- 135.8) mmol/L (p < 0.0001). Systolic and diastolic BP fell from 148.5 (+/- 23.3) to 136.9 (+/- 22.4) mmHg (p = 0.02), and 84.8 (+/- 11.7) to 77.8 (+/- 10.4) mmHg (p = 0.003), respectively. NVP-BSK805 JAK/STAT inhibitor Cholesterol reduction was significantly greater in the group that received cyclosporine (n = 29) compared with

a tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid mofetil (MMF) combination (1.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, p = 0.003). Choice of exocrine vs. endocrine graft drainage did not affect risk factor response.


SPK resulted in significant improvements both in glucose control and other measured CV risk factors.”
“Based oil the finite-difference time-domain method, we demonstrate multiple enhanced transmission bands through subwavelength compound periodic array of rectangular holes by adjusting the cutoff wavelength of each hole. The results show that the transmission spectrum of this structure is almost a compound

of that of the corresponding periodic hole arrays with simple cell, when the holes lire arranged appropriately. It IS also found that the Surface plasmon resonance peak and the localized resonance peak exhibit different behaviors as the symmetry of compound periodic structure varies. The proposed method provides in effective way to achieve enhanced transmission simultaneously at different selected wavelengths ill the visible and infrared re-ions. (C) 2009 American Institute Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3254248]“
“Background Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) have a 50 to 250 times greater risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than the click here general population and experience higher rates of invasive and metastatic disease. These greater risks are a product of the tumorigenic effects of their immunosuppressive medications. As the number of transplantations and the life expectancy of SOTRs increase, SCCs are becoming a major source of morbidity and mortality. Objective To present a practical approach for busy practicing clinicians to the care of SOTRs who are developing SCCs. Topics include assessment and treatment of new and neglected SOTRs; the dermatologist’s role with the transplantation team; and practical considerations in the choice of topical agents, systemic agents, and immunosuppressive therapy manipulation.

These extracts were characterized for total phenolics content, an

These extracts were characterized for total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and their phenolic profile was qualitatively evaluated by HPLC-DAD. Chromatographic profile of SFE extract showed a diversity of phenolic compounds while ultrasound and conventional extracts contained mainly gallic acid. The highest phenolics concentration and antioxidant capacity was also found in the SFE extract. Preliminary screening of the extracts antiproliferative activity on rat N1E-115

neuroblastoma cells, and on human HeLa cervical and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed that carob SFE extract exhibited a much higher antiproliferative effect in the NSC-23766 studied tumor cells, indicating its greater potential as a source

of natural antitumor compounds. Supercritical fluid extraction revealed to be a more selective and efficient method of extraction. Thus, the potential association of two environmentally clean processes (UAE and SFE) for obtaining polyphenols from carob kibbles will enable bioactive AZD8931 clinical trial compounds within an integrated and sustainable recovery process. Also, the solid residue after extractions could be used as dietary fiber. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study assesses the association between salt added at the table, processed meat and the risk of various cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 19732 patients with histologically confirmed incident cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, MK-0518 molecular weight pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or leukaemia, and 5039 population controls, between 1994 and 1997. Measurement included information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Compared with never adding salt

at the table, always or often adding salt at the table was associated with an increased risk of stomach, lung, testicular and bladder cancer. Processed meat was significantly related to the risk of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, prostate, testis, kidney and bladder cancer and leukaemia; the odds ratios for the highest quartile ranged from 1.3 to 1.7. The findings add to the evidence that high consumption of salt and processed meat may play a role in the aetiology of several cancers. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 20:132-139 (C) c 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Elderly patients with multiple infarctions revealed a high prevalence of postoperative stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

In this model, the random effect is used to better account for th

In this model, the random effect is used to better account for the variability of the drift. Contrary to the usual approaches, the proposed algorithm has the benefit of considering an unknown and therefore flexible drift matrix. This allows the effective representation of a broader class of drift signals and therefore the reduction of the error in approximating the drift component. Estimates of the HRF and the hyperparameters are derived Ro-3306 research buy by iterative

minimization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence between a model family of probability distributions defined using the mixed-effects model and a desired family of probability distributions constrained to be concentrated on the observed data. The performance of proposed method is demonstrated on simulated and real fMRI data, the latter originating from both event-related and block design fMRI experiments.”

There has been much recent focus on sclerotherapy treatment of lymphatic malformations with OK432. Surgical treatment however can have a number of advantages, including complete curative excision. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of surgical excision as the primary (first) treatment for this condition. This group includes a number of children with very extensive disease as well as some with smaller lesions.

Methods: Prospectively collected database with additional information from medical records of children with cervicofacial lymphangiomas treated over 10 years at a tertiary paediatric p38 MAP Kinase pathway referral centre. For this study only children who underwent surgical excision as the primary treatment modality were included.

Results: Total of 118 children p38 MAPK activation with lymphatic malformations were treated under the care of the senior author over

a 10 year period. Of these 53 patients, who underwent surgical excision as the primary treatment modality for cervicofacial lymphatic malformations were included in this study. Forty-one patients who underwent sclerotherapy as the initial treatment were excluded. Also excluded were 6 patients who underwent thoracic surgery and 18 who were treated conservatively. The majority of the patients (41, 77.3%) underwent only a single surgical procedure (36 – surgical excision, 5 – laser excision). At the first follow up after the primary surgery, the result was complete resolution of symptoms in 29 patients, near complete resolution in 13 patients (together 79.3%) and partial response in 11(19.7%) patients. Twenty-three patients with disease localised only to the neck, all (100%) had a complete or near complete resolution of the disease after the primary surgery. Complete/near complete response was achieved in 98% cases with macrocystic disease, regardless of the location. Minor complications occurred in 11.3% patients. No permanent nerve weaknesses occurred.

Conclusion: Cervicofacial lymphatic malformations in children should be managed in a multidisciplinary setting.

We will argue that animals have the capacity for recollection and

We will argue that animals have the capacity for recollection and that the hippocampus plays a central and selective role in binding information in the service of recollective memory. Then

we will consider examples of transitive inference, a paradigm that requires the integration of overlapping memories and flexible use of the resulting relational memory networks for generating predictions in novel situations. Our data show that animals have the capacity for transitive inference and that the hippocampus plays a central role in the ability to predict outcomes selleck products of events that have not yet occurred.”
“We have investigated the hysteresis in the transfer characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT) field effect transistors (FETs). The relationship between the hysteresis width and channel CNT density was studied for FETs of spun-on random network CNTs. The hysteresis width in the transfer characteristics decreases with an increase in the channel CNT density. To explain this relationship, we carried out simulations combining two models such as: the hysteresis model and the gate electric field model. Considering the finite channel thickness and trap-assisted tunneling current, the simulation described the experiments well. The simulation implies the possibility of reducing hysteresis by relaxing

the strong gate electric field at the CNT surface. We also discuss other possibilities of hysteresis reduction on FETs whose channels are of nanoscale cylindrical material. see more (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3402971]“
“In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the terminal step Selleck Birinapant of triacylglycerol (TAG) formation, a database search was carried out in the genome of the unicellular photoautotrophic

green alga Ostreococcus tauri. The search led to the identification of three putative type 2 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-like sequences (DGAT; EC, and revealed the absence of any homolog to type 1 or type 3 DGAT sequence in the genome of O. tauri. For two of the cDNA sequences (OtDGAT2A and B) enzyme activity was detected by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains with impaired TAG metabolism. However, activity of OtDGAT2A was too low for further analysis. Analysis of their amino acid sequences showed that they share limited identity with other DGAT2 from different plant species, such as Ricinus communis and Vernicia fordii with similar to 25 to 30% identity. Lipid analysis of the mutant yeast cells revealed that OtDGAT2B showed broad substrate specificity accepting saturated as well as mono- and poly-unsaturated acyl-CoAs as substrates. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Recordings of rat hippocampal place cells have provided information about how the hippocampus retrieves memory sequences. One line of evidence has to do with phase precession, a process organized by theta and gamma oscillations.

Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed nanolevel d

Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed nanolevel dispersion of the additive in the fiber web. Clay additive did not offer any benefit as far as the mechanical properties of the meltblown web are concerned. Meltblown web samples with nanoclay had higher variability in web structure, high air permeability, high stiffness, and lower mechanical properties. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, selleck compound Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 1062-1072, 2010″
“Esophagectomy through cervico-thoraco-abdominal approach is a useful surgical technique in treating patients with esophageal cancer. However, the cervical reconstruction is also known to have a high rate of anastomotic

leakage, as well as anastomotic stricture, intrathoracic ERK inhibitor stomach syndrome, reflux esophagitis and other complications, thereby influencing postoperative recovery and quality of life.

The objective of this study was to investigate whether tubular stomach is superior to whole stomach in reducing anastomotic leakage for esophageal reconstruction through the cervico-thoraco-abdominal (3-field) approach.

A total of 850 patients undergoing the 3-field esophagectomy were retrospectively

included in this study and divided into a tubular stomach reconstruction group (Group A, n = 453) and a whole stomach reconstruction group (Group B, n = 397). All patients underwent esophagectomy through right thorax, left cervical part, abdominal triple incisions and done in esophageal reconstruction by hand-sewn two-layer anastomosis.

Results revealed that in comparison with whole stomach, esophageal reconstruction with tubular stomach had a lower incidence of anastomotic leakage (5.5 vs. 9.3 %, P < 0.05), less manifestation of intrathoracic syndrome (3.3 vs. 9.8 AG-881 research buy %, P < 0.001) and less occurence of reflux esophagitis (5.1 vs. 11.1 %, P < 0.01). However, for the incidence of anastomotic stricture, there was no significant difference

between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.8 %).

This observation study suggests that for esophageal cancer patients undergoing the 3-field esophagectomy tubular stomach is better than whole stomach for esophageal reconstruction as reflected by a reduced postoperative anastomotic leakage, intrathoracic syndrome and reflux esophagitis.”
“Background: Gametocytes are the sexual form of the malaria parasite and the main agents of transmission. While there are several factors that influence host infectivity, the density of gametocytes appears to be the best single measure that is related to the human host’s infectivity to mosquitoes. Despite the obviously important role that gametocytes play in the transmission of malaria and spread of anti-malarial resistance, it is common to estimate gametocyte carriage indirectly based on asexual parasite measurements.

It is recommended that preventive chemotherapy be given to tuberc

It is recommended that preventive chemotherapy be given to tuberculin converters as an infection control measure in this hospital.”
“Iliopsoas abscesses (IPAs) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are rare; however,

IPAs from community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) may be increasing. In Japan, we previously described an adolescent athlete case of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive ST30 CA-MRSA (strain NN12). In this study, we describe selleck chemical an IPA and discitis case from a variant of the successful PVL-negative CA-MRSA clone (ST8 CA-MRSA/J) in Japan. The patient was a 62-year-old man with intractable eczema, who had been diagnosed with IPAs and discitis (L1-L2). CA-MRSA (strain NN55) was isolated from blood, pus, and joint fluid. The invasive infections seemed to have originated in his intractable eczema, and the characteristics of this case, systemic myalgia and marked thrombocytopenia, seemed to have been caused by an exotoxin. Molecular genetic analysis CDK inhibitor revealed that NN55 possessed

genotype ST8/spa606(t1767)/agr1/CoaIII and SCCmecIV of a novel subtype (encoding new cell-wall-anchored surface protein/J [CWASP/J]), exhibited enhanced expression of the cytolytic peptide genes, psm alpha and hld, and was resistant to gentamicin (caused by aacA-aphD), similar to ST8 CA-MRSA/J; however, NN55 lacked pathogenicity island SaPIj50 [carrying tst, encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)] of ST8 CA-MRSA/J, BMS-345541 molecular weight suggesting a variant (ST8 CA-MRSA/Jv). Strains NN12 and NN55 both caused bacteremia, IPAs, and adjacent musculoskeletal infections, preceded by intractable skin infections, and possessed high potential for adherence and enhanced expression of psm alpha and hld. The data suggest the role of a combination of CA-MRSA adhesin/cytolytic peptides (not PVL or TSST-1) in the pathogenesis of IPAs (and perhaps of systemic myalgia and marked thrombocytopenia).”
“SETTING: The World Health Organization recommends the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients

with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). However, due to concerns about the effectiveness of IPT in community health care settings and the development of drug resistance, these recommendations have not been widely implemented in countries where tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infection is common.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of IPT on survival and TB incidence among HIV-infected patients in Tanzania.

DESIGN: A cohort study nested within a randomized trial of HIV-infected adults with baseline CD4 counts of >= 200 cells/mu l was conducted to compare survival and incidence of active TB between TST-positive subjects who did or did not complete 6 months of IPT in the period 2001-2008.

RESULTS: Of 558 TST-positive subjects in the analytic cohort, 488 completed 6 months of IPT and 70 did not. Completers had a decrease in mortality compared to non-completers (HR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.8).

1%) to the pelvic lymph nodes Five patients (6 0%) showed lympho

1%) to the pelvic lymph nodes. Five patients (6.0%) showed lymphovascular invasion, and three (3.6%) showed confluent patterns of stromal invasion (confluent invasion) on initial conization findings. All

of these five patients were included in the hysterectomy group. Of 19 patients with ACY-738 molecular weight conization alone, two showed vaginal metastasis. Of four patients with vaginal metastasis, two showed lymphovascular invasion and one showed confluent invasion despite negative conization margin. In patients with nodal metastasis, stromal invasion of 3.0 mm and 2.8 mm, and horizontal spread of 6.8 mm and 6.9 mm were observed on conization, respectively. All patients are currently alive due to adequate therapy including chemo-radiation for six patients with recurrent


Conclusions: In patients showing stromal invasion of nearly 3.0 mm and horizontal spread of nearly 7.0 mm in stage Ia1 cervical SCC, pelvic lymphadenectomy may be considered. Even for patients showing a negative conization margin, careful follow up is necessary, because vaginal metastasis sometimes occurs.”
“A 61-year-old right-handed man with hypertension and dyslipidemia noted that he was singing along to classic rock songs on his car radio, but his voice was off pitch. Six days later, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain revealed a cerebral infarct of the right temporal parietal cortex and insula. Case reports of the precise anatomic selleck chemicals llc correlates of disordered pitch musical processing have been few and fragmentary. The anatomic involvement of our case coincides with the areas of involvement in 3 previously reported cases. Increased awareness of amusia as a rare clinical presentation of stroke should lead to earlier stroke intervention.”
“Aim: To compare postoperative outcomes and effects on quality of life following thermal balloon ablation (TBA) or laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB).

Material and Methods: Sixty-eight

women requiring surgical treatment for HMB were randomly allocated into BV-6 manufacturer two treatment arms: TBA (n = 34) and LSH (n = 34). The randomization procedure was based on a computer-generated list. The primary outcome was a comparison of the effects on menstrual bleeding (Pictorial Blood Loss Assessment Chart [PBAC]) between the two procedures. The secondary outcome measures were quality of life, improvement of bleeding patterns, intensity of postoperative pain, and early postoperative complications. Continuous outcome variables were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the chi(2) test or Fisher’s exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The PBAC score was significantly reduced in both treatment groups. After LSH all women had amenorrhea. After TBA there was a significant improvement of bleeding frequency and length.

“Background In a recent US cohort study total coffee and t

“Background In a recent US cohort study total coffee and tea consumption was inversely associated with risk of glioma and ex penmental studies showed that caffeine can slow the invasive growth of glioblastoma

Objective The objective was to examine the relation between coffee

and tea Intake and the risk of glioma and meningioma in a large European cohort study the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Design Data on coffee and tea intake were collected from men and women recruited Into the EPIC cohort study Over an average of 8 5 y of follow up 343 cases of glioma and 245 cases of meningioma were selleck chemicals llc newly diagnosed in 9 countries We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relation between coffee and tea and brain tumors

Results We observed no associations between coffee tea or corn billed coffee and tea consumption and Selleck ATM Kinase Inhibitor risk of either type of brain tumor when using quantiles based on country-specific distributions of Intake However a significant inverse association was observed for glioma risk among those consuming >= 100 mL coffee and tea per

day compared with those consuming <100 mL/d (hazard ratio 0 66 95% CI 044 0 97 P = 0 03) The association was slightly stronger in men (hazard atm 059 95% CI 034 101) than in women (hazard ratio 0 71, 95% CI 042 131), although neither was statistically significant

Conclusions In this large cohort study we observed an inverse association between total coffee and tea consumption and risk of glioma that was consistent with the findings of a recent click here study These findings if further replicated in other studies may provide new avenues of research on gliomas Am J Clin Nutr 2010 92 1145-50″
“Background: The burden of malaria has decreased dramatically within the past several years in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Further malaria control will require targeted control strategies based on evidence of risk. The objective of this study was to identify environmental risk factors for malaria transmission using remote sensing technologies to guide malaria control interventions in a region of declining burden of malaria.

Methods: Satellite images were used to construct a

sampling frame for the random selection of households enrolled in prospective longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys of malaria parasitaemia in Southern Province, Zambia. A digital elevation model (DEM) was derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission version 3 DEM and used for landscape characterization, including landforms, elevation, aspect, slope, topographic wetness, topographic position index and hydrological models of stream networks.

Results: A total of 768 individuals from 128 randomly selected households were enrolled over 21 months, from the end of the rainy season in April 2007 through December 2008. Of the 768 individuals tested, 117 (15.2%) were positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Individuals residing within 3.