Four weeks after initial treatment, all mice were sacrificed to assess the effects of drug treatments. All procedures involving mice complied with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Institutes of Health). Western blotting The tissues were homogenized in 0.5 ml Hepes (50 mM, pH 7.5) containing 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM CaCl2, 1 mM dithiothreitol,
1% ethylene glycol-bis(aminoethyl ether)-tetraacetic acid 1% Triton X- 100 and proteinase inhibitors. Protein extracts were kept in ice for 30 min and then centrifuged at 14,000 4SC-202 g at 4°C for 30 min. Protein concentrations were determined using a bicinchoninic acid protein assay reagent kit. Protein samples (20 mg) were mixed with equal volumes of loading buffer (20% glycerol, 4% HDAC inhibition sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8) and then boiled for 5 min in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol. Proteins were separated in 8% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels at 100 V for 2 h and then electrotransferred to nitrocellulose membranes at 270 mA for 2 h. Membranes were blocked with 5% non-fat dry milk in PBS with 0.1% Tween 20 for 1 h at room temperature. Then, membranes were incubated with anti- HIF-1α (1:500) overnight at 4°C
and finally with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse IgG for 1 h at room check details temperature after washing with TBS containing 0.1% Tween 20. Proteins were visualized by enhanced chemiluminescence reagents after washing. Protein expression was semi-quantified using an image analysis system. CD34-PAS dual staining Four micrometer paraffin sections were routinely deparaffinized and dehydrated. First, CD34 immunohistochemical staining was applied to the sections. Endogenous peroxidase activity was blocked with
3% hydrogen peroxide in 50% methanol for 10 min at room temperature. Sections were rehydrated and washed with PBS and then pretreated with citrate buffer (0.01 M citric acid, pH 6.0) for 20 Tacrolimus (FK506) min at 100°C in a microwave oven. Non-specific binding sites were blocked with 2% normal goat serum in PBS for 20 min at 37°C. Sections were then incubated overnight at 4°C with anti-CD34 at a 1:200 dilution. Then, sections were rinsed with PBS and incubated with biotinylated goat anti-mouse IgG for 20 min at 37°C, followed by incubation with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine(DAB) chromogen for 10 min at room temperature. Sections were then rinsed with water for 1 min to stop the DAB-staining reaction. Formalin and melanin granules were then removed using the methods mentioned above. Finally, sections were treated with 0.5% periodic acid solution for 10 min and rinsed with distilled water for 2-3 min. In a dark chamber, sections were treated with Schiff solution for 15-30 min. After rinsing with distilled water, sections were counterstained with hematoxylin .