One day following passive immunization (day 0), PCA levels were s

One day following passive immunization (day 0), PCA levels were significantly higher for groups that received RSV F anti-sera (p < 0.01) than those given a similar dose of palivizumab, as measured by the PCA assay ( Fig. 6A). In palivizumab treated animals, PCA serum titers were at or below the LOD for the assay except at the highest dose, whereas the PCA serum levels in cotton rats passively immunized with anti-RSV F serum were 183 μg/ml and 53 μg/ml at the 5.6 and 1.4 mg/kg dose levels, respectively. All groups were challenged 24 hours after passive immunization (day 0) with 105 pfu RSV-A Long virus. Lung tissues were collected Alectinib concentration on day 4 post challenge to determine viral titer by plaque assay on

homogenized tissue. The highest doses of anti-RSV F immune sera (5.6 mg/kg) and palivizumab (5.0 mg/kg) conferred apparently complete protection (Fig. 6B), reducing virus replication in the lungs >100-fold relative to the placebo. Virus replication was also significantly reduced in animals given 1.6 and 0.6 mg/kg anti-RSV F immune sera compared to the group that received pre-immune sera (p < 0.01) ( Fig. 6B). Palivizumab at 1.3 and 0.6 mg/kg induced a slight reduction in lung virus titers, but were not statistically significant when compared to the group that received pre-immune sera ( Fig. 6B). Beeler et al. [35] have identified multiple neutralizing

epitopes on RSV F protein using competitive binding assays with a Z-VAD-FMK purchase panel of RSV F monoclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibody resistant mutant (MARMs) and subsequently, antigenic sites I, II, IV, V and IV were mapped on RSV F [36]. A competitive ELISA was performed using monoclonal antibodies 1107, 1112, 1153, 1243 to identify neutralizing antibodies induced by the RSV F vaccine. Antibodies 1107, 1153 and 1243 map to antigenic sites II and I while the 1112 is more broadly reactive to sites IV, V, and VI (Table 1). Polyclonal cotton rat sera raised against much RSV F nanoparticle vaccine

was competitive against these RSV F monoclonal antibodies (Table 1). Antibodies competitive for antigenic site II monoclonal antibodies 1107 and 1153 were induced by the vaccine without and with adjuvant, respectively while no or minimal site II competitive antibodies were detected in sera from FI-RSV immunized and RSV infected animals (Table 1). The RSV F vaccine also induced polyclonal responses competitive with neutralizing antibodies 1112 and 1243 that recognize RSV F antigenic sites I, IV, V and VI (Table 1). RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants, a common basis for infant and pediatric medical visits and a significant pathogen in the elderly and high-risk adults. Severe RSV infections in young children are clearly associated with ongoing and repeat episodes of wheezing [24], [37] and [38].

trigona extracts However, further studies involving isolation an

trigona extracts. However, further studies involving isolation and purification of active principle(s) are necessary for its better utilization as a therapeutic agent. All authors have none to declare. The authors

are grateful to the University of Mysore, Mysore for financial support through “100 – Crore Special Grants of GOI-MHRD-University of Mysore – Institution of Excellence (IOE) Project”. “
“Atorvastatin calcium (AT, Fig. 1a), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, is a lipid regulating drug. It is used to reduce LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and triglycerides. It is also used for primary prophylaxis of cardiovascular PI3K inhibitor events in patients with multiple risk factors, including diabetes mellitus. 1 The typical dose of AT is 10–80 mg per day and it reduces 40–60% LDL. 2 AT

is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Extent of absorption increases in proportion to AT dose, indicating linear pharmacokinetics. The absolute bioavailability of AT (parent drug) is approximately 14% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. The low systemic availability is attributed to presystemic clearance in gastrointestinal mucosa and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism. Plasma AT concentrations are lower (approximately 30% for cmax and AUC) following evening drug administration compared with morning. 2 AT is insoluble in aqueous solutions of pH 4 and below AT is very slightly soluble in distilled water, pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, Forskolin clinical trial and acetonitrile;

slightly soluble in ethanol; and freely soluble in methanol. and Ezetimibe (EZ, Fig. 1b), a 1-(4-flurophenyl)-3(R)-[3(S)-(4-flurophenyl)-3-hydroxy propyl]-4(S) (4-hydroxyphenyl) azetidin-2-one, belongs to a group of selective and very effective cholesterol absorption inhibitors. It prevents transport of cholesterol through the intestinal wall by selectively blocking the absorption of cholesterol from dietary and biliary sources. This reduces the overall delivery of cholesterol to the liver.3 and 4 EZ may be used alone or with other lipid regulating drugs. It is given in a usual dose of 10 mg once daily.1 After oral administration, EZ is readily absorbed. There was no substantial deviation from dose proportionality between 5 and 20 mg. The absolute bioavailability of ezetimibe cannot be determined, as the compound is virtually insoluble in aqueous media suitable for injection.1 EZ is a white, crystalline powder that is freely to very soluble in ethanol, methanol, and acetone and practically insoluble in water. AT and EZ combinations are present in the market for some time now and several methods for their simultaneous evaluations in pharmaceutical products have been developed. These methods include TLC5 and 6 spectrophotomety7 and 8 and HPLC.

S ) (Ogden et al , 2012) Public health authorities are beginning

S.) (Ogden et al., 2012). Public health authorities are beginning to look for cost-effective ways to reduce this epidemic. Increased physical activity is a candidate strategy because of its numerous health benefits, including the potential to attenuate cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk ( Kahn et al., 2002, Norman et al., 2006 and Task Force on Community Preventive Services (USTFCPS), 2001).

Research has shown that there is a positive association between proximity to parks/recreational facilities and increased physical activity levels ( Roemmich et al., 2006 and Sallis et al., 2011). Programming MLN8237 ic50 and group activities, for example, have been found to be related to increased usage of school facilities and improved levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ( Lafleur et al., 2013). Having convenient, reliable access to open space/recreational areas or programing that encourages physical activity, however, can be challenging, especially for under-resourced communities ( Marie, 2007, Powell et al., 2006 and Spengler et al., 2007). Shared-use agreements (SUAs) where school property (i.e., the grounds, facilities, or both) and programming are shared between schools and

community-based entities represent a strategy to address this public health problem. A shared-use agreement outlines an agreement between two or more parties that details and enumerates each party’s responsibilities in the partnership. Shared-use encompasses a diverse array of agreement types, including joint-use agreements (JUA) and Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs). These contractual documents may be legally binding or non-binding; but whether or not they are legally binding does not diminish their potential benefits. A formal agreement adds value to each partnership by laying out the expectations of the entering parties, reducing the odds that the relationship would dissolve prematurely. School grounds offer clean, protected, and often underutilized space that community members can use for physical activity

(Maddock et al., 2008). Communities that seek to promote physical activity and improve access to recreational space can partner with school districts. Non-profit organizations are also important Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II partners as they often receive outside funding to provide programming (Lafleur et al., 2013). SUAs offer the opportunity for both parties to clarify their intent and roles in the partnership, as well as to identify their individual interests. Even when state laws generally provide schools strong protection against liability for injuries to recreational users of school properties (California Tort Claims Act, 2012), the perceived threat of tort liability remains an important deterrent to schools’ decisions to participate (Spengler et al., 2007 and Zimmerman et al., 2013).

CD11c is also known as integrin αX and interacts

with its

CD11c is also known as integrin αX and interacts

with its complement integrin b2 (also called CD18). CD11c is widely employed as a marker of murine DCs. Thirty minutes later, the DCs were gently washed with 0.01 M PBS, resuspended Epigenetic inhibitor at 5 × 106 cells/ml in PBS and detected by flow cytometry. In the control groups, LPS was added into the culture at 2 μg/ml as a positive control. rTs-PmyN was used as an irrelevant protein control, and PBS was added as a blank control. To exclude the effects of possible contamination of the recombinant proteins by LPS, the inhibitor polymyxin B was added at 30 μg/ml as a control in all tested groups. Mouse CD4+ T cells were isolated from the spleens of BALB/c mice infected with 500 T. spiralis ML for 45 days using anti-CD4 Endocrinology antagonist magnetic beads (Miltenyi Biotec, Germany) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The isolated cells contained 94% CD4+ cells as determined by FACS analysis. The isolated CD4+

T cells were resuspended at 5 × 105 ml−1 and co-incubated with 1 × 105 ml−1 DCs stimulated with rTs-Hsp70 or other controls as mentioned above and pretreated with mitomycin C. The co-incubation was continued for 48 h at 37 °C, and the cells were then harvested, washed, resuspended in fresh medium and seeded into 96-well flat-bottom cell culture plates. Next, 25 μl 5 mg/ml MTS was added to each well, and incubation was continued for 4 h. The proliferation was measured using the MTS kit (Promega, USA), and the stimulation index was calculated according to the manufacturer’s protocol. To measure the cytokines secreted by the CD4+ T cells that were co-incubated with the stimulated DCs, 2 × 105 CD4+ T cells were co-incubated with rTs-Hsp70-stimulated DCs at a ratio of 5:1 in 96-well ELISPOT plates for 48 h at 37 °C. ELISPOT assays for detecting the CD4+ T cell-expressed IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were performed as

previously described [24]. After being incubated with 10 μg/ml rTs-Hsp70 for 48 h, the mouse bone marrow-derived DCs were washed twice in RPMI 1640 to remove the mafosfamide excess FBS and stimulator and then resuspended in PBS. Each female naïve BALB/c mouse in a group of 30 mice was injected intraperitoneally with 5 × 105 rTs-Hsp70-stimulated DCs. The DCs treated with LPS, rTs-PmyN and PBS were used as controls. All mice were transferred two more times with the same number of treated DCs at an interval of 2 weeks. The sera were collected through tail bleeding of the mice one week after each DC transfer and then every two weeks after last DC transfer until the 11th week (i.e., 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 weeks). Anti-rTs-Hsp70 total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in the collected sera were detected by an indirect ELISA as described previously [25].

Written and signed informed

consent was obtained from par

Written and signed informed

consent was obtained from parents or guardians of participating children for vaccination and sampling procedures. PCV7 was provided by Wyeth Lederle Portugal (Farma), Lda. The vaccinated group was immunized with a single dose of the vaccine in May 2001. The intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL of vaccine was performed by a pediatric nurse in the deltoid muscle of the upper arm of each child. Pediatric nurses collected the nasopharyngeal specimens by use of calcium alginate swabs (BBL Culture Swab; Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, MD). Swabs were inserted through the child’s nostril until they touched the posterior nasopharynx, rotated 180°, removed, placed in transport media PI3K Inhibitor Library ic50 (Stuart medium) and transported at room temperature to the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics at Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica.

Bacterial samples were processed within 4 h of collection [25]. Each child from the vaccinated and control groups was sampled in May and June 2001. In the vaccinated group, the first nasopharyngeal sample was collected immediately before immunization with a single PCV7 dose, in May 2001. Children carrying pneumococcal isolates expressing only Volasertib solubility dmso one capsular type (serotype) were designated as single carriers and children carrying more than one serotype were designated as multiple carriers. Among the latter, the serotype found in the majority of the isolates (>50%) was designated as the dominant serotype and the remaining serotypes were named minor serotypes. The ecological mechanisms that could be identified in this study were defined as follows: (i) clearance (disappearance of a pneumococcal isolate of a given serotype); (ii) de novo acquisition (acquisition of a new pneumococcal isolate of a given serotype); (iii) unmasking (expansion of a minor serotype that becomes the dominant serotype); (iv) maintenance (maintenance of a given serotype) and (v) capsular switch (an isolate maintains its genotype/PFGE pattern, but

presents a different serotype). Each nasopharyngeal swab was Metalloexopeptidase streaked onto 5 μg/mL gentamicin-5% sheep blood triptic soy agar plate and incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 atmosphere. Whenever available, up to 10 pneumococcal colonies were picked from this primary plate. Colonies were chosen randomly and any morphologically distinct colony was also picked. Colonies were re-streaked and cultivated on 5% sheep blood triptic soy agar and frozen at −80 °C in Mueller-Hinton broth containing 15% glycerol (v/v). Phenotypic characteristics (optochin susceptibility, morphology, and α-hemolysis) were used for presumptive pneumococci identification. The bile solubility assay was performed on suspected pneumococcal cultures exhibiting decreased susceptibility to optochin. These purified cultures were used in the subsequent assays. All pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the Quellung reaction using specific capsular antisera (Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark) [26].

The lethal dose 50 (LD50) was determined in female 7-week-old Bal

The lethal dose 50 (LD50) was determined in female 7-week-old Balb/c mice. Groups of six mice were infected intranasally with 1 × 101, 1 × 102, 1 × 103 and 1 × 104 TCID50 of WNVsyn or WNVwt, respectively. Survival of mice was recorded for a period of 28 days after infection. The 10-fold virus dilutions were titrated shortly after challenge and were used to calculate the LD50 values using the computer program Graph pad Prism 5. Protection was determined after immunization of female 7-week-old Balb/c mice by subcutaneous injections of formalin-inactivated

WNVsyn or WNVwt vaccines in a volume of 100 μl in TBS containing 0.2% Staurosporine price Al(OH)3. Mice were challenged intranasally with 10 μl of PBS (0.01% human serum albumin) containing 2 × 105 TCID50 WNVwt virus. Survival was monitored over a period of 28 days after challenge. For neutralizing antibody determination, Luminespib serum samples were serially diluted with cell culture medium in twofold steps. The serum dilutions were mixed at a ratio of 1:1 with a virus stock suspension adjusted to 1 × 102 TCID50, incubated for 90 ± 15 min at room temperature

and transferred (eight replicates per dilution) to a 96-well microtiter plate seeded with Vero cells. The plates were inspected under a light microscope for the presence of CPE after incubation for 6 days at 37 °C and 5% CO2. The neutralizing titer was

calculated by counting CPE negative wells and by usage of the formula μNT-Titer = (V/2) × 2E((Nneg/8) + 0.5) whereas Nneg is the amount of negative wells and V represents the dilution of the sera in the neutralization mix. For each assay a defined serum positive control was measured and the titer of the viral material was titrated. For detecting infectious viral material in formalin-inactivated WNV antigen preparations, Vero and C6/36 cells were seeded in five 175 cm2 tissue culture flasks and inoculated with individual preparations corresponding to 12 ml of the infectious yield from which the preparations Metalloexopeptidase were derived. After a 10 day incubation period at 37 °C and 5% CO2, supernatant of each flask was titrated by TCID50 and 2 ml supernatant of each flask was carried onto fresh Vero and C6/36 cells. After a 10-day observation period supernatant of each flask was titrated by TCID50. The respective antigen preparations were classified as safe, when no CPE was detectable in individual flasks and no viral material was detected in both TCID50 assays. The amount of WNV antigen in respective samples was determined by means of an ELISA double sandwich system. Briefly, 96-well microtiter plates were coated by overnight incubation at 2–8 °C with an anti-WNV IgG polyclonal serum raised in guinea pigs.

People were eager to learn about the HPV vaccine Religious leade

People were eager to learn about the HPV vaccine. Religious leaders reported that this was the first time that staff from a health programme had come to discuss a health intervention with them, and that they would discuss cervical cancer and HPV vaccination with their congregations. Limitations of the qualitative sub-study included the fairly small purposive samples and the fact that, in schools, a teacher selected the parent, student and teacher participants for GDs who might have been the most accepting of new health interventions.

However, the interviewer then selected IDI RAD001 mw participants from the groups. These included several teachers who opposed vaccination, parents who asked critical questions, and female students who stated they would defy parental wishes in terms of accepting vaccine. In USA, beliefs about the safety of vaccines, likelihood

of HPV infection, as well as doctor’s recommendations, have been associated with increased HPV vaccine acceptability [39], [40] and [41]. In Mwanza, anti-fertility rumours, experience of previous school-based health interventions for girls, and lack of knowledge about cervical cancer in targeted communities, including amongst health workers, ZD1839 could be a potential challenge to vaccine uptake. It will therefore be essential that correct information about HPV vaccination is provided to parents, pupils, community members and key personnel (teachers, health workers) to help prevent the emergence and/or spread of rumours before and during HPV vaccination programmes. In light of the recent price reduction of the Gardasil® vaccine for low-income countries [42], many African governments may now consider

adding the HPV vaccine to their national programs. Our research identified key issues related to vaccine acceptability and allowed adaptation of communication materials for the subsequent HPV vaccination Endonuclease demonstration project in Mwanza. Our findings also informed health worker training on issues related to obtaining parental agreement to vaccinate daughters, and rumour management. For a successful national programme on cervical cancer prevention, health workers should acquire additional training on the disease and prevention strategies. Adequate sensitisation, through school and/or community meetings and mass media, of all relevant populations, including parents, students, teachers, community and religious leaders will be essential for the success of a national HPV vaccination campaign in Tanzania.

It is a lipophilic derivative and crosses to the brain It modifi

It is a lipophilic derivative and crosses to the brain. It modifies MES (maximal electroshock) and inhibits PTZ (pentylenetetrazole) induced clonic seizures.3 NBV is a relatively new highly cardioselective, β-adrenergic receptor antagonist not attributed to blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors selleck compound on smooth muscle cells. NBV has antioxidative effect and is a highly lipophilic drug. Patients with epilepsy may have impaired cognitive abilities and AED therapy may

contribute to this impairment. Such patients would therefore need additional treatment, beside AED therapy to correct the accompanying neurological disorder. There is no effective treatment of seizures in stroke and hence treatment needs to be initiated in the context of the patient. The presence of co morbid conditions and the use of other drugs also complicate antiepileptic therapy, and the risk of drug interactions is a particular hazard in elderly patients on multiple co medication. So, the present study was an attempt to evaluate the antiepileptic efficacy of a combination of drug with antihypertensives which can Venetoclax be effective when associated with risk factors especially cerebrovascular risk factors, stroke which might precipitate epilepsy. Male albino swiss strain mice weighing 18–30 g were procured

from the Central Animal House Facility, I.T.S Paramedical College, Ghaziabad, India (approval no – 1044/C/07/CPCSEA/27th Feb 2007). Animals were housed in groups of 5–6% and maintained at 20–30 °C and 50–55% humidity in a natural light and dark cycle, with free access to food and water. Utmost care was taken to ensure that animals were treated in the most humane and ethically acceptable manner. The drugs used were NBV (Nebicard, Torrent Pharmaceuticals, India), GBP (Gabapin, Intas Pharmaceuticals, India) and a chemoconvulsant PTZ (Sigma, USA). NBV and GBP were suspended Oxalosuccinic acid in 0.25% of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) in 0.9% saline solution and were freshly prepared prior to administration. All the drugs were given

in volumes of 10 ml/kg. NBV was administered at a dose of 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg p.o.4 while gabapentin was administered at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.5 PTZ was administered at a dose of 70 mg/kg i.p.6 The drug treatment was given for 4 days and observations were made at the 4th day after drugs treatment. The observations were made at the time of peak effect of the drugs (for NBV after 30 min for GBP after 2 h). The control animals received 0.25% CMC in 0.9% saline solution. All the parameters were performed to all groups i.e control as well as drugs treated. The seizures threshold and the latency to seizures was evaluated by Increasing Current Electroshock Seizure test7 and PTZ test.6 Spontaneous alternation method8 and rotarod9 test was performed for the evaluation of neurobehavioural impairment. Biochemical estimation was done by measuring the level of Lipid peroxidation10 and reduced glutathione11 in brain.

Surveillance and study of the epidemiology and evolution of these

Surveillance and study of the epidemiology and evolution of these viruses are key areas for future research. The transmission of LPAIV from wild or domestic birds to swine has resulted in multiple lineages of influenza viruses that have become established in

swine populations, and are endemic in various regions of the world [7]. The diversity of swine influenza virus subtypes and lineages appears on the rise for the past decades, and is associated with high rates of reassortments in this species. It is possible that this is a novel phenomenon likewise in part due to the massive increase in swine production worldwide [31]. Occasionally, some strains of LPAIV have caused only one or few epidemics or have been isolated from pigs only sporadically, likely resulting from sporadic introductions from bird reservoirs without further establishment. selleck kinase inhibitor Shared use of habitat or of drinking water with wild or domestic birds, consumption of carcasses or slaughter offal of these birds, or introduction by humans via contaminated utensils or vehicles are most likely the sources

of LPAIV infection in swine. Selleck Protease Inhibitor Library The transmission of LPAIV from birds to other mammals has resulted in the establishment of equine and canine influenza virus lineages in horse and dog populations, respectively; in occasional influenza epidemics in farmed American mink (Mustela vison) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina); and in sporadic cases of infection in whales [7]. TCL Contacts with infected birds through shared use of habitats, shared feeding habits or consumption of infected birds likely favoured cross-species transmission of LPAIV in these species. Canine influenza viruses of the H3N8 subtype currently circulating

in dog populations are exceptions as they originated from an equine influenza virus, presumably after consumption of infected horse meat by racing greyhounds [32] and [33]. More recently, LPAIV H3N2 have been transmitted from birds to domestic dogs and may have established in this species in South-East Asia [34] and [35]. Among HPAIV, only HPAIV H5N1 have been transmitted from poultry to a wide range of wild and domestic birds and mammals [12]. Consumption of infected bird carcasses presumably resulted in the frequent transmission of these viruses to carnivores and predatory birds [7]. Animal bridge species infected with influenza viruses may become sources of infection for humans. The major sources of human infection with zoonotic influenza viruses are poultry and swine (Table 1). So far, no transmission of equine or canine influenza viruses to humans has been reported. However, transmission of avian and human influenza viruses to domestic dogs and cats are increasingly reported [34], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40] and [41].

Mass spectra of the compounds were obtained using Finnigan MAT 31

Method (a): A mixture

of 2-aminobenzamide (1.0 g, 7.4 mmol) and phthalic anhydride (isobenzofuran-1,3-dione) (1.09 g, 7.4 mmol) was powdered and introduced into a beaker. 5 mL of ethanol was added to form a homogeneous solution, covered with a watch glass and then irradiated in a microwave oven at 400 W, at 30 s intervals, for a total of 10 min. The crude product was purified using flash chromatography [on silica gel; elution Wortmannin molecular weight with petroleum ether–chloroform (1:1)] to afford ethyl 2-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)benzoate 5 as a yellow solid (1.50 g, 69%), m.p. 220–222 °C; υmax/cm−1 (KBr) 3170 (NH), 1730 (C O of ester), 1656 (C O of amide), 1610 (C N), 1299, 1263, 1132 (C–O); δH (200 MHz, CDCl3) 1.00 (3H, t, CH3),

4.10 (2H, q, COOCH2), 7.50–7.82 (6H, m, ArH), 8.10 (1H, d, ArH), 8.20 (1H, d, ArH), 12.08 (br, 1H, s, NH); δC (50 MHz, CDCl3) 14.1 (CH3), 61.6 (OCH2), 120.9 (Cq, Ar), 126.6 (CH, Ar), 127.1 (CH, Ar), 127.9 (CH, Ar), 130.1 (CH, Ar), 130.7 (CH, Ar), 130.8 (CH, Ar), 131.0 (Cq, Ar), 132.3 (CH, Ar), 135.0 (Cq, Ar), 135.1 (CH, Ar), 149.4 (Cq, Ar), 153.9 (Cq, Ar), 163.8 (C O), 166.8 (C O); m/z (rel. %) 295 [(M + H)+, 100], 249 (98), 233 (59). Method (b): A mixture of 2-aminobenzamide (1.0 g, 7.4 mmol), phthalic anhydride (1.09 g, 7.4 mmol), silica gel (230–240 mesh, Merck, 5 g) and 5 drops of acetic acid was powdered and introduced into a beaker, covered with a glass and irradiated in a microwave oven at 700 W power for 2 min. This was followed by another irradiation learn more almost at 400 W for 5 min. Purification of the crude using flash chromatography [on silica gel; elution with petroleum

ether–chloroform (1:1)] afforded compound 5 in (1.35 g, 62%). A mixture of 2-aminobenzamide (2.72 g, 20.0 mmol) and succinic anhydride (dihydrofuran-2,5-dione) (2.00 g, 20.0 mmol) was powdered and introduced into a beaker, covered with a watch glass and irradiated in a microwave oven at 400 W for a total of 15 min (at 30 s intervals) to give a yellow viscous liquid. The liquid gave a positive (NaHCO3) test for carboxylic acid functional group. After 24 h, during which there was no crystallization from the viscous liquid, 7 drops of acetic acid and 15 mL of ethanol were added to the reaction mixture and was further irradiated for 15 min. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo and purified using flash chromatography [on silica gel; elution with chloroform–ethyl acetate (1:1)] to afford 3-(3,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinazolin-2-yl)propanoic acid as a white solid (1.24 g, 85%), m.p. 201–203 °C; υmax/cm−1 (Nujol): 3383 (NH), 1704 (C O), 1663 (C O of amide), 1615 (C N); δH (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) 2.70 (2H, t), 2.90 (2H, t), 7.00–8.40 (4H, m, ArH), 11.70 (NH), 12.30 (br, 1H, s, OH); δC (50 MHz, DMSO-d6) 29.8 (CH2), 30.5 (CH2), 121.