Detection of antibodies was determined in roe deer using a homemade ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens (FhES) and a recombinant protein (FhrAPS). None selleck chemical of the deer passed eggs by faeces and none flukes in their livers were found. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica was 29% using FhES, with significantly higher values in the oldest ones (36%). Twenty-eight percent of the samples were positive to FhrAPS. Twenty-three percent of the cows eliminated eggs of F. hepatica and the seroprevalence was 67% using FhrAPS. No relationship between the seropositivity
values of deer and cattle was demonstrated. The role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of F. hepatica is discussed. We encourage the use of ELISA to know the possibility of exposure to trematodes in wild ruminants. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Previous studies showed that several genetic polymorphisms might influence the clinical outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including HBV clearance or development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) gene are associated with clinical
outcome of HBV infection. A total of 1096 Korean subjects having either present or past GSK690693 research buy evidence of HBV infection were prospectively enrolled between January 2001 and August 2003. Among 16 genetic variants in TGFA gene, nine variants were genotyped using TaqMan assay and the genetic association with HBV clearance and HCC occurrence was analysed. Statistical analyses revealed that TGFA+103461T > C, TGFA+106151C > G and TGFA-ht2 were marginally associated with clearance of HBV infection. However, only TGFA-ht2 retained significance after multiple correction (OR = 0.39, Pcorr = 0.007 in recessive model). Although no variants were significant after multiple correction, TGFA+88344G > A and TGFA+103461T > C were weakly associated in recessive model in the analysis of HCC occurrence. In addition, Cox relative hazards model
also revealed that TGFA+88344G > A was associated with onset age of HCC occurrence in subjects (RH = 1.46, Pcorr = 0.04). TGF-alpha polymorphisms might be an important factor in immunity, progression of inflammatory Selleck Staurosporine process and carcinogenesis, which explains the variable outcome of HBV infection at least in part. Further biological evidence is warranted in the future to support these suggestive associations.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of nucleation temperature (T (n)) and excipient concentration on the collapse temperature data obtained from freeze-dry microscopy (FDM) experiments. T (n), the temperature of the onset of collapse (T (oc)), and the full collapse temperature (T (fc)) were determined for aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) 40 kDa and 2-(hydroxypropyl)-A-cyclodextrin.