Detection of antibodies was determined in roe deer using a homema

Detection of antibodies was determined in roe deer using a homemade ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens (FhES) and a recombinant protein (FhrAPS). None selleck chemical of the deer passed eggs by faeces and none flukes in their livers were found. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica was 29% using FhES, with significantly higher values in the oldest ones (36%). Twenty-eight percent of the samples were positive to FhrAPS. Twenty-three percent of the cows eliminated eggs of F. hepatica and the seroprevalence was 67% using FhrAPS. No relationship between the seropositivity

values of deer and cattle was demonstrated. The role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of F. hepatica is discussed. We encourage the use of ELISA to know the possibility of exposure to trematodes in wild ruminants. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Previous studies showed that several genetic polymorphisms might influence the clinical outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including HBV clearance or development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) gene are associated with clinical

outcome of HBV infection. A total of 1096 Korean subjects having either present or past GSK690693 research buy evidence of HBV infection were prospectively enrolled between January 2001 and August 2003. Among 16 genetic variants in TGFA gene, nine variants were genotyped using TaqMan assay and the genetic association with HBV clearance and HCC occurrence was analysed. Statistical analyses revealed that TGFA+103461T > C, TGFA+106151C > G and TGFA-ht2 were marginally associated with clearance of HBV infection. However, only TGFA-ht2 retained significance after multiple correction (OR = 0.39, Pcorr = 0.007 in recessive model). Although no variants were significant after multiple correction, TGFA+88344G > A and TGFA+103461T > C were weakly associated in recessive model in the analysis of HCC occurrence. In addition, Cox relative hazards model

also revealed that TGFA+88344G > A was associated with onset age of HCC occurrence in subjects (RH = 1.46, Pcorr = 0.04). TGF-alpha polymorphisms might be an important factor in immunity, progression of inflammatory Selleck Staurosporine process and carcinogenesis, which explains the variable outcome of HBV infection at least in part. Further biological evidence is warranted in the future to support these suggestive associations.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of nucleation temperature (T (n)) and excipient concentration on the collapse temperature data obtained from freeze-dry microscopy (FDM) experiments. T (n), the temperature of the onset of collapse (T (oc)), and the full collapse temperature (T (fc)) were determined for aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) 40 kDa and 2-(hydroxypropyl)-A-cyclodextrin.

“Stearic acid and sodium stearate were used as lipids to f

“Stearic acid and sodium stearate were used as lipids to form inclusion complexes with cornstarch through a cooking process, respectively. The complexing index and the surface tension of the cooked pastes were measured.

The films of the pastes were formed by casting, paper-sizing, and paper-coating methods. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystal and surface structures. Such properties of the complex films as the moisture absorption, friction coefficient, and tensile properties were tested. The results reveal that the two lipids could form an inclusion complex with amylose in the cornstarch more or less as a result of forming V-type crystals that restrained the crystallite size of the B-type crystal in the starch film. The addition

of lipids reduced the sensitivity of the complex films to environmental moisture, decreased the friction coefficient of the films, and visibly increased the smoothness Selleckchem PF-04929113 of the surfaces of the films. When the lipids were added in the starch at a weight content of 1%, the elongation at break of the complex film increased and Elafibranor in vitro the strength decreased slightly, and above a 1% content of the lipids, the tensile properties of the starch film were greatly deteriorated. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Structure, magnetic, and transport properties of the epitaxial Fe3-xTixO4 films with x <= 0.09 fabricated by reactive co-sputtering were investigated systematically. The lattice constant expands from 0.8360 to 0.8376 nm with x increases from 0 to 0.09. The room-temperature saturation magnetization increases by 31.7%, and the negative magnetoresistance (at 100 K) increases from 3.7% to 6.9% as x increases from 0 to 0.09. The results indicate

that Ti atoms might exist at the tetrahedral sites in the spinel structure. Theoretical calculations based on the density-functional theory suggest that the doped Ti on the tetrahedral sites indeed enhances the lattice constant and magnetic moment. Meanwhile, the calculated results also imply that the Ti-doped Fe3O4 has a high spin polarization near 100%. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3650252]“
“Young children readily act on information from adults, Rigosertib setting aside their own prior convictions and even continuing to trust informants who make claims that are manifestly false. Such credulity is consistent with a long-standing philosophical and scientific conception of young children as prone to indiscriminate trust. Against this conception, we argue that children trust some informants more than others. In particular, they use two major heuristics. First, they keep track of the history of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, they endorse claims made by someone who has provided reliable care or reliable information in the past. Second, they monitor the cultural standing of potential informants.

Twelve of 15 (80%) patients developed MTS in group C, whereas onl

Twelve of 15 (80%) patients developed MTS in group C, whereas only 1 of 15 (6.7%) patients in group F developed MTS. At T-20, the group C patients showed significantly lower arterial blood pressure (P < 0.05) and a faster

heart rate (P < 0.01) than those in group F. The mean plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration was significantly elevated in group C at T-20 (P < 0.01), whereas the plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) level remained low throughout the observation period in group F.

We found that preoperative administration of flurbiprofen axetil reduced the incidence of MTS during abdominal surgery with remifentanil analgesia.”
“Interventions to change physician transfusion behavior are often evaluated by examining the

amount of red blood cell (RBC) units transfused or the proportion of patients see more transfused before and after the intervention. The pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentration is a sensitive measure of transfusion practice, but has not been used to evaluate behavioral interventions. We examined the effect of a Danish National Board of Health December 2007 transfusion guideline on the behavior of clinicians treating acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We compared the AL3818 clinical trial effect of the guideline on pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentrations with other measures of transfusion behavior, including use of RBC units and proportion of patients transfused. No change in transfusion behavior could be demonstrated by examining amount of RBC units transfused and proportion of patients transfused. Conversely, the pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentration fell significantly. Pre-transfusion haemoglobin determination is a sensitive measure of the effect of an intervention to change physician transfusion behaviour.”
“Most burn injuries can be managed on an outpatient basis by primary care physicians. Prevention

efforts can significantly lower the incidence of burns, especially in children. Burns should be managed in the same GW786034 cost manner as any other trauma, including a primary and secondary survey. Superficial burns can be treated with topical application of lotions, honey, aloe vera, or antibiotic ointment. Partial-thickness burns should be treated with a topical antimicrobial agent or an absorptive occlusive dressing to help reduce pain, promote healing, and prevent wound desiccation. Topical silver sulfadiazine is the standard treatment; however, newer occlusive dressings can provide faster healing and a re often more cost-effective. Physicians must reevaluate patients frequently after a burn injury and be aware of the indications for referral to a burn specialist. (Am Fam Physician. 2012; 85 (1):25-32. Copyright (C) 2012 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Objective: Glucosamine is commonly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is available as an over the counter preparation and also as a prescription pharmaceutical.

MethodsA prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlle

MethodsA prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in

China was conducted. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with CVA (aged 18-75 years) were randomly divided into two groups to receive twice daily for 8 weeks, inhaled budesonide 100g plus either oral procaterol 25g or placebo. Primary and secondary efficacy variables were cough symptom severity scores and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) life quality scores. Adverse events were also assessed.

ResultsThe budesonide/placebo and budesonide/procaterol groups contained drug discovery 80 and 78 participants (one excluded for later diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchitis), respectively, with similar baseline characteristics. Daily cough score declined during treatment in both groups and was lower in the budesonide/procaterol group at 8 (0.44 vs 0.73) and 10 (0.36 vs 0.69) weeks (P<0.05). Compared with the budesonide/placebo group, the proportion of patients with a reduction of 3 points or greater (66% vs 42%) and that of patients scoring 0 points (63% vs 51%) was higher in the budesonide/procaterol group for daily cough scores (P<0.05). At 8 weeks, LCQ score improvement was superior in the budesonide/procaterol group (38.9419.24 vs 32.7118.92; P<0.05).


combined with budesonide was well tolerated and effective at improving cough click here symptoms and quality of life in patients with CVA.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Adavosertib concentration multicenter trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of procaterol combined with budesonide for treatment of patients with cough-variant asthma. Procaterol combined with budesonide was well tolerated and superior to budesonide

alone at improving cough symptoms and patient quality of life.”
“Health related quality of life (HRQoL) was characterized among patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and compared with the general Norwegian population.

A cross sectional, comparative design was chosen, and the samples comprised 196 NET patients and 5,258 individuals from the general Norwegian population.

We used Chi-square cross tab calculations to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics, T-tests for independent samples and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in order to compare HRQoL (SF-36) scores across a range of background variables. Furthermore, T-tests were used to analyze differences in HRQoL scores between the samples.

NET patients demonstrated significantly lower on all HRQoL subscales when compared with the general population with the lowest values on general health, physical limitation and vitality. Individuals above 70 years reported lower scores on physical functioning and physical limitations compared with those who were younger.

Results: The total cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008 was JPY

Results: The total cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008 was JPY 2.77 trillion (USD 23.8 billion). While the direct cost was JPY 0.770 trillion (USD 6.59 billion), the morbidity and mortality click here costs were JPY 1.85 trillion (USD 15.8 billion) and JPY 0.155 trillion (USD 1.33 billion), respectively.

Conclusion: The societal burden caused by schizophrenia is tremendous in Japan, similar

to that in other developed countries where published data exist. Compared with other disorders, such as depression or anxiety disorders, the direct cost accounted for a relatively high proportion of the total cost. Furthermore, absolute costs arising from unemployment were larger, while the prevalence rate was smaller, than the corresponding results for depression or anxiety in Japan.”
“Background: The introduction

of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV; types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the burden of cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), genital warts and other HPV-related diseases.

Objective: To determine the cost effectiveness of providing a quadrivalent (6,11,16,18) HPV vaccine programme in adolescent females aged 12 years in addition to the existing cervical cancer screening programme in Belgium.

Methods: A Markov state-transition model was developed for the Belgian context. in order to evaluate the long-term impact of vaccinating Pinometostat concentration a cohort PP2 mw of girls aged 12 years alongside the existing screening programme. Women were followed until the age of 85 years. A vaccine that would prevent 100% of diseases associated with HPV-6, -11, -16 and -18, with lifetime duration of efficacy,

80% coverage, in conjunction with current screening, was compared with screening alone. For this analysis, 35% of cases of CIN-1, 55% of CIN-2/3, 75% of cervical cancer and 90% of genital warts were considered to be attributable to HPV-6, -11, -16 or -18. The model estimated lifetime risks and total lifetime healthcare costs, survival and QALYs for cervical cancer, CIN and genital warts. Outcomes validation was applied. Model outcomes also included incremental costs per life-year gained and incremental costs per QALY gained. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Belgian healthcare payer, and costs were in year 2006 values.

Results: The model estimated a reduction in the lifetime risk of cervical cancer from 0.94% to 0.34%, therefore preventing 362 cases of cervical cancer and 131 related deaths in a cohort of 60 000 girls aged 12 years in Belgium. The base-case scenario suggests quadrivalent HPV vaccination in addition to current cervical screening in Belgium to be cost effective at (sic)10546 per QALY. This is within the accepted range of cost-effective interventions in Europe.

We also found that atabcg22 plants were more suspectible to droug

We also found that atabcg22 plants were more suspectible to drought stress than wild-type plants. AtABCG22 was expressed in aerial organs, mainly guard cells, in which the gene expression pattern was consistent with the mutant phenotypes. Using double mutants, we investigated

the genetic relationships between the mutations. The atabcg22 mutation further increased the water loss of srk2e/ost1 mutants, which were defective in ABA signalling in guard cells. Also, the atabcg22 mutation enhanced the phenotype of nced3 mutants, which were defective in ABA biosynthesis. Accordingly, the additive roles of AtABCG22 functions in ABA signalling and ABA biosynthesis are discussed.”
“Thirty-six micro-organisms, ARS-1620 molecular weight represented by fungi and yeasts strains, were isolated from heavy metal-contaminated sites in Tangier, Morocco. Filamentous fungi

isolated belonged to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria and Geotrichum. They were screened for their resistance to heavy metals. The results revealed that the majority of the isolates were resistant to Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn, whereas to Cd, only the fungus Penicillium sp. was able to grow. The level of resistance depended on the isolate tested, as well as the site of its isolation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Pb(2+), Cr(6+), Cu(2+) selleck chemicals llc and Zn(2+) were also determined. Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates were the most tolerant to the heavy metals and exhibited strong growth, often exceeding the control (isolates grown in agar medium without heavy metals). Their MIC ranged from 20-25 mM for Pb, followed by 15-20 mM both for Cu and Zn and 10-15 mM for Cr. These fungi have shown a high level of resistance to all metals tested, which makes them attractive potential candidates for further investigations regarding their ability to remove metals from contaminated

“Sacrocolpopexy, be it laparoscopic or abdominal, is associated with a risk of mesh extrusion. We report an interesting case of mesh extrusion with subsequent removal of the mesh from the vagina by the patient. We take this opportunity to review the literature regarding incidence, predisposing factors and complications of sacrocolpopexy mesh extrusion with specific reference to this case.”
“In situ phenol pertraction with 1-octanol has been experimentally studied to improve the production of the model component phenol by a recombinant strain of Pseudomonas putida S12. When the phenol concentration in the reactor reaches 2 mM, the cells in fermentations without phenol removal are inhibited in growth and phenol production. Growth and phenol production stop after approximately 80h at a phenol concentration in the reactor of 3.8 mM. When phenol is removed from the fermentation broth by pertraction, a lower maximum aqueous phenol concentration of 2.6 mM is achieved, while the total phenol production increases to 132%, as compared to the fermentation without pertraction.

Summary of Background

Data A variety of treatments have

Summary of Background

Data. A variety of treatments have been described in the literature for the treatment of congenital kyphosis due to HV. We report the results of our technique.

Methods. Between 1997 and 2005 we have treated 15 consecutive patients with progressive congenital kyphosis with anterior instrumented fusion and strut grafting. Thirteen patients had a single posterolateral HV and 2 patients had a single posterior HV. Of the 15 patients in the study, 5 were girls and 10 boys. see more Mean age at surgery was 22 months (range, 8-33). Mean follow-up period was 6.8 years. Thirteen HV were located in the thoracolumbar junction (T10-L2) and 2 in the thoracic spine.

Results. The average operating time of procedure was 150 minutes (range, 130-210 minutes). The average blood loss was 180 mL (range, 100-330 mL), equivalent to a mean external blood volume loss of 15% (range, 11%-24%).

Preoperative segmental Cobb angle averaging 34 degrees at last follow-up. Compensatory coronal cranial and caudal curves were corrected by 50%. The angle of segmental kyphosis averaged 39 degrees (range, 20 degrees-80

degrees) before surgery and 21 degrees (range, 11 degrees-40 degrees) at last follow-up. This represents a 43% of improvement of the segmental kyphosis, and a 64% of improvement of the segmental scoliosis at last follow-up. One case with initial kyphosis of 80 degrees continued to check details progress and required revision anterior and posterior surgery. There were no neurologic complications.”
“Late onset aura (LOA) is usually considered benign but raises diagnostic uncertainties. We compared individuals with LOA (> 45 years of age at aura onset) with those of early onset (EOA) in clinical features, vascular risk factors and imaging, in a retrospective study

design including patients with migraine aura and age > 44 years at first visit. In 77 cases (51 EOA and 26 LOA), no differences were found in gender distribution, family or personal history of migraine without aura, type of aura symptoms or imaging findings. LOA patients’ BLZ945 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor were more likely to not fulfil all ICHD-II aura criteria and to lack headache. This data suggest that LOA and EOA are overall identical but there are differences in presentation that deserve a better characterization by a prospective study.”
“Nicotinic drugs have been proposed as putative drugs to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether nicotine can sensitize parkinsonian animals to the effect of dopaminergic drugs. Testing this hypothesis is important because nicotine has been shown to present neuroprotective and acute symptomatic effects on PD, but few studies have addressed the question of whether it may induce long-lasting effects on dopamine neurotransmission. We tested this hypothesis in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD.

Likewise, immunolocalisation studies with the anti-pectin antibod

Likewise, immunolocalisation studies with the anti-pectin antibody (JIM5) also supported the idea that the development of tissue-specific pectin characteristics is important during secondary growth. These results emphasize an involvement of hemicellulose and pectin biochemistry in selleck products wood formation, suggesting that the controlled and localised modification of these polysaccharides may define cell properties and architecture and thus, contribute to determining different biophysical characteristics of Eucalyptus wood. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“To analyze concentrations of endometrial

leukocytes in patients with idiopathic-repeated abortions.

Biopsies of exactly dated secretory endometrium in 25 patients with idiopathic-repeated abortions and 10 control patients without a history of miscarriage were compared with respect to the concentrations of T-helper cells (CD4), cytotoxic T-cells (CD8), B-cells (CD19) and uterine natural killer cells (CD56) by immunohistochemistry and RNase protection assays.

All examined cells were detectable within secretory endometrium. No statistically significant differences of the examined immune-cell concentrations were seen between the control group and the repeated

miscarriage group by either test.

This study suggests that the concentrations of specific endometrial leukocytes in a non-pregnant cycle are not associated with repeated pregnancy loss. Thus, the hypothesis of an altered endometrial immunity in patients with repeated SB273005 miscarriages, symbolized by persistently differing local immune-cell concentrations, has to be questioned.”
“Background: The discovery and development of new anti-malarials are at a crossroads. Fixed dose artemisinin combination therapy is now being used to treat a hundred million children each year, Selleckchem Fludarabine with a cost as low as 30 cents per child, with cure rates of over 95%. However, as with all anti-infective strategies, this triumph brings with it the seeds of

its own downfall, the emergence of resistance. It takes ten years to develop a new medicine. New classes of medicines to combat malaria, as a result of infection by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are urgently needed.

Results: Natural product scaffolds have been the basis of the majority of current anti-malarial medicines. Molecules such as quinine, lapachol and artemisinin were originally isolated from herbal medicinal products. After improvement with medicinal chemistry and formulation technologies, and combination with other active ingredients, they now make up the current armamentarium of medicines. In recent years advances in screening technologies have allowed testing of millions of compounds from pharmaceutical diversity for anti-malarial activity in cellular assays.

Results: The group 1 preterm neonates have higher CysC values (1

Results: The group 1 preterm neonates have higher CysC values (1.34 +/- 0.1 mg/L) on the 3rd day of life than the group 2 (1.28 +/- 0.2 mg/L) and the group 3 (1.24 +/- 0.2 mg/L) but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05, for each). CysC values were independent of gestational age, birth weight and gender (p > 0.05, for each). No correlation was found between CysC and Cr on the 3rd day of life (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: CysC is regarded as an alternative for assessing the renal function in preterm neonates.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and localization

of HSP60 in the heart, liver, and kidney JQ1 inhibitor of acutely heat-stressed broilers at various stressing times. The plasma creatine kinase (CK) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) concentrations statistic increased following heat stress. After 2 h of heat stress, the tissues showed histopathological changes. Hsp60 expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of parenchyma GANT61 research buy cells heat stress. The intensity of the cytoplasmic staining varied and exhibited an organ-specific distribution pattern. Hsp60 levels in the hearts of heat-stressed chickens gradually increased at 1 h (p < 0.05) and peaked

(p < 0.05) at 5 h; Hsp60 levels in the liver gradually decreased at 3 h (p < 0.05); Hsp60 levels in the kidney had no fluctuation. It is suggested that Hsp60 expression is tissue-specific and this may be linked to tissue damage in response to heat stress. The Hsp60 level is distinct in diverse tissues, indicating that Hsp60 may exert its protective effect by a tissue- and time-specific mechanism. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study aims to compare the serum total L-carnitine concentrations of obese and non-obese pregnant women and to identify the role of L-carnitine in both maternal and fetal weight gain during pregnancy.

Method: This study reviews 118 healthy women with singleton term pregnancy (>= 37 weeks). The characteristics of the recruited subjects were analyzed according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).

Results: Selleckchem Ulixertinib The women with pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) had significantly

higher serum L-carnitine levels whereas the women with BMI > 29.9 kg/m(2) at term pregnancy had significantly lower serum L-carnitine levels (p = 0.001 for both). The neonates born to women with BMI > 29.9 kg/m(2) at term pregnancy had significantly longer height and wider head circumference (p = 0.001 for both). Serum total L-carnitine levels correlated significantly and negatively with pre-pregnancy body weight, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy body weight, pregnancy BMI and serum triglyceride levels (r = -0.397, p = 0.001; r = -0.357, p = 0.001; r = -0.460, p = 0.001; r = -0.463, p = 0.001 and r = -0.216, p = 0.019, respectively). There was a significant and positive correlation between L-carnitine and HDL values (r = 0.243, p = 0.008).

Combination therapy, either by administration of both types of co

Combination therapy, either by administration of both types of compounds separately or by treatment with novel somatostatin-dopamine chimeric molecules (e.g. BIM-23A760), appears to

be a promising approach in this respect. In selected cases of Ectopic GW4869 mw ACTH-producing Syndrome (EAS), the sst(2)-preferring compound octreotide is able to reduce cortisol levels effectively. A recent study showed that D-2 receptors are also significantly expressed in the majority of EAS and that cabergoline may decrease cortisol levels in subsets of these patients. In both normal adrenal tissue as well as in adrenal adenomas and carcinomas that cause CS, sst and DA receptor expression has been demonstrated. Although selected cases of adrenal CS may benefit from sst or DA-targeted treatment, its total contribution to the treatment of these patients is likely to be low as surgery is effective in most cases.”
“The bovine corpus luteum (CL) is a transient gland with a life span of only 18 days in the cyclic cow. Mechanisms controlling CL development and secretory function may involve factors produced both within and outside this gland. Although luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is the main trigger

of ovulation and granulosa cells luteinization, many locally produced agents such as arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, growth factors and cytokines were shown to complement gonadotropins action in the process of CL development. Bovine CL is a highly vascular gland, where the very rapid angiogenesis rate (until Day 5 of the cycle) results in the development of a capillary network, endowing this gland with one of the highest blood flow rate per unit CH5183284 ic50 mass in the body. Angiogenesis in the developing CL is later followed by either controlled regression of the microvascular

tree in the non-fertile cycle or maintenance and stabilization of the blood vessels, as seen during pregnancy. Different luteal cell types (both steroidogenic and accessory luteal cells: immune cells, endothelial cells, pericytes and fibroblasts) are involved in the pro- and/or anti-angiogenic responses. The balance between pro-and anti-angiogenic responses to the main luteolysin – prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) could be decisive in whether or not PGF2 alpha induces CL regression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) may be one of the factors that modulate the angiogenic response to PGF2 alpha. Manipulation of local production and action of FGF2 will provide new tools for reproductive management of dairy cattle. Luteolysis is characterized by a rapid decrease in progesterone production, followed by structural regression.