Contrary to popular belief, the volume of major open vascular surgery reported by recent vascular surgery residents has remained relatively stable since 1994. Over the same time period, endovascular procedures have been rapidly incorporated into clinical practice by the majority of vascular surgeons applying for recertification by the VSB. Current vascular surgery residents receive a rich operative experience in both open and endovascular procedures that is reflective of contemporary practice. ( J Vasc Surg 2011;53:1130-40.)”
“Whether dopamine (DA) release is compensated during the presymptomatic phase of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is controversial. Here we
use in vivo voltammetry in the parkinsonian rat and an electrical stimulation protocol ATM inhibitor established to fatigue nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons to investigate selleck chemicals the plasticity of DA-release mechanisms. Amplitudes of evoked voltammetric signals recorded
in intact rat striata decreased with repetitive, high-frequency stimulation (60 Hz, every 5 min/60 min). Strikingly, DA levels were maintained during an identical “”fatiguing”" protocol in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (<40% denervation) striata in the absence of enhanced DA synthesis. In contrast, more severely lesioned striata (>55% denervation) also appeared to sustain DA release, however, this was demonstrated in the presence of enhanced synthesis. Sustained release was replicated in intact animals after irreversible blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT) via RTI-76, implicating neuronal uptake as a trigger. We further demonstrate
through kinetic analysis that lesions and compromised uptake target a “”long-term”" (time constant of minutes) presynaptic depression, which underlies the maintenance of release. Taken together, our findings identify a denervation-induced maintenance of DA release that was independent of activated synthesis and driven by altered uptake. This novel neuroadaptation may contribute to early preclinical normalization of function and help resolve discrepant findings regarding compensatory changes in DA release during progression of the parkinsonian state. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Axillosubclavian arterial transection Farnesyltransferase due to blunt traumatic injury poses a treatment challenge in the multiply injured patient. Endovascular repair can be technically successful if the injury is focal. We describe an endovascular technique utilizing combined brachial and femoral access to create a through-and-through brachial-femoral wire and repair the arterial injury with a covered stent. (J Vasc Surg 2011;53:1141-4.)”
“Oxidative damage in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD).