We thank Prof. F. Stewart (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany) for the provision of plasmids pR6K-rpsL-Neo and pSC101-BAD-Cre-tet and Dr T.D. Ho for the provision
of plasmid pKD46. H.N.T. is a recipient of IRO scholarships from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. “
“Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains are important signalling modules that possibly monitor changes in various stimuli such as light. For the majority of PAS domains that have been identified by sequence similarity, the biological function of the signalling pathways has not yet been experimentally investigated. Thirty-three PAS proteins were discovered in BIBF 1120 chemical structure Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) by genome/proteome analysis. Thirteen PAS proteins were identified as contributing to light signalling and Xcc growth, motility or virulence using molecular genetics and bioinformatics methods. The PAS domains played important roles in light signalling to regulate the growth, motility and virulence of Xcc. They might be regulated by not only light quality (wavelength) selleck compound but also quantity (intensity) as potential light-signalling components. Evaluating the light wavelength, three light-signalling types of PAS proteins in Xcc were shown to be involved in blue light signalling, tricolour (blue, red and far-red) signalling or red/far-red signalling. This showed that Xcc had evolved a complicated
light-signalling system to adapt to a complex environment. Light is an energy source and an ever-present stimulus in the environment, and numerous studies have shown bacterial responses to light wavelengths spanning much of the visible spectrum (Konig et al., 2000; Bhoo et al., 2001; Lamparter et al., 2002; Pattison & Davies, 2006). The longer wavelengths, including red and far-red light, have been shown to regulate bacterial metabolism and a wide range of other responses (Bhoo et al., Acetophenone 2001; Lamparter et al., 2002). Some responses to long-wavelength
light may be mediated by light-induced changes in protein structure. The vast majority of characterized bacteriophytochrome (Bph) proteins exhibit a reversible state of protein-red (Pr) to protein-far-red (Pfr) transition, which possibly corresponds to diverse, species-specific roles including phototaxis, chromatic adaptation, resetting circadian clocks and regulation of pigment biosynthesis. (Bhoo et al., 2001; Lamparter et al., 2002). The short-wavelength region, that is the ultraviolet (UV) and blue light ranges, can have powerful effects on organisms not only because of deleterious effects on DNA (UV range) (Pattison & Davies, 2006), but also the capability to excite, with high yield, ubiquitously present photosensitizing compounds, for example, porphyrins and flavins (Spikes, 1989). To date, most of our knowledge of putative light-sensing molecules in bacteria has come from bioinformatics prediction, with little experimental confirmation of their functions.