Indeed ultrasound techniques have a high dynamicity, and therefor

Indeed ultrasound techniques have a high dynamicity, and therefore a good temporal resolution and neuroradiological techniques have a high anatomic definition, and therefore a good spatial resolution. The possibility of combining

the ultrasound examination with a reference modality in real time allows confirming the anatomical assumption of a new approach. Moreover the identification of vessel segments (TS in this case) is faster and more reliable. This system is a Virtual Navigator software, already used in other body districts. Therefore, after the identification and the proposal of an extended ipsilateral insonation for the TS an imaging fusion system was implemented and tested validating it. Forty consecutive subjects (28 men and 12 women, mean Venetoclax nmr age 55.63 ± 7.61 years) were chosen among patients who underwent standard TCCS examinations at our lab and had – age >18 years; All subjects have not a disease of the venous system and the reasons why they underwent brain MR were migraine or dizziness or a control examination of a previously known nonspecific lesion pattern in the white matter or previous ischemic stroke in the arterial circulation.

The basal TCCS examination was performed by using a MyLab 60 equipment and both the contralateral and the ipsilateral approach were selleck kinase inhibitor used for the insonation of the TS. The Progesterone first 20 subjects underwent a further study with the Virtual Navigator software in order to validate the ipsilateral approach. Fig. 1 shows an example of the contralateral and ipsilateral approach to the TS. It is notable that the proposed insonation plane for the ipsilateral TS, with a more anterior positioning of the probe and an opposite tilting, as compared to the contralateral approach, allows a larger field of view,

and therefore an examination of a greater extent of TS. The increased field of view led us to distinguish three segments of the TS through an ipsilateral approach, as shown in Fig. 2, because of the visualization of the entire course of the TS in the correspondent bone groove. All segments were looked for during the basal TCCS and during the Virtual Navigator examination, and separated insonation rates were calculated. Therefore, the global insonation rate of the TS is composed: – for the contralateral approach by the insonation of the proximal segment; so potentially increasing the rate of success in the TCCS insonation of the TS. Considering both sides, 80 TS were insonated with both contralateral and ipsilateral approach. Insontation rates were compared by using the Fisher exact test.

The medium and coarse fractions remaining in the dredger’s hold b

The medium and coarse fractions remaining in the dredger’s hold became poorer in 137Cs. Thus, a thin layer of fine sand with a higher 137Cs level was formed on the sea bottom surface around the pits, and during storms it was transported by near-bottom currents and deposited in the pits. The inversion of the 137Cs content in the deposits filling the dredging pits (Figure 13) most probably occurred owing to the prior accumulation of fine sands richer in 137Cs lying closest to the pits, which then became covered by material poorer in 137Cs sliding down from the slopes. Despite the changes in morphology, the pits still existed after 11 months. The sediments covering the bottom of the pits showed no

increase in the amount of mud or dead algae, which indicates that wave-induced currents can act directly on

the bottoms of such pits. This is not the kind of depression in which dead algae or other harmful substances can accumulate, as was the case selleck chemicals in the Puck Lagoon (NW Gulf of Gdańsk), where postdredging pits became Epacadostat nmr sediment traps in which organic matter accumulated and rapidly decomposed. Periodically, the chemical reduction of sulphate in the sediments caused hydrogen sulphide to occur in the Puck Lagoon pits (Graca et al. 2004). The regeneration of post-dredging pits in the studied area of open southern Baltic waters is more similar to what happens in the SW Baltic, e.g. in German coastal waters (Kubicki et al. 2007, Manso et al. 2010). However, this experiment showed that the spatial extent of changes in the type of sedimentary Immune system cover was limited to just a few dozen metres around the post-dredging pits following the settlement of the fine sandy suspension. A year after the extraction works operations, the thin layer of fine sand had dispersed, and the surface of the sea bottom was covered by deposits with grain sizes similar to the pre-extraction situation. This is the reverse of what occurs in the SW Baltic, where the effects of dredging can

also be detected in the superficial grain-size distribution. The areas affected by dredging operations (Tromper Wiek East) present a finer sediment and higher abundance of mud than non-impacted areas (Manso et al. 2010). This can be explained by differences in the composition of extracted sediments and the hydrodynamics of the areas. Sand extracted in SW Baltic coastal waters contain a more silty fraction, whereas fine fractions are almost absent in sands extracted from the southern Baltic. German coastal waters are also better protected against storms than the open waters of the southern Baltic. The bed of sand in the investigated area accumulated after the end of the middle Holocene (Littorina) transgression. The contemporary seabed dynamics in the area is at a relatively high level. The thickness of the currently mobile layer of sand, as determined by measurements of the 137Cs content, is between 0.4 and 0.8 m and depends on the grain size distribution.

The parameters requiring the fewest fish (4–16 fish per site) wer

The parameters requiring the fewest fish (4–16 fish per site) were EROD and ECOD activity, serum SDH, and biliary PAH metabolites. Analysis of HSP70, LSI, GSI and CF required considerably more fish per site (13–106). These numbers Talazoparib solubility dmso generally increased in direct proportion to requirements for decreasing amplitudes of the difference from reference values. For EROD and ECOD activity, only 4–12 fish/site were needed to detect a 3-fold induction. Previous studies with other fish species gave similar results. Flammarion and Garric (1999) estimated that 13 fish/sex/season/site were required to detect a 2-fold induction of EROD activity at α = 0.05 in chub (Leuciscus cephalus). Similarly,

Beliaeff and Burgeot (1997) calculated for a variety of fish species that 10 fish were required to detect a 3-fold EROD activity induction at α = 0.10. The required number of fish computed in the present investigation was comparable to numbers reported in the published literature for field studies, where EROD activity is, on average, investigated using n = 7 fish per site (and laboratory studies use on average five fish per treatment, Oris and HIF activation Roberts, 2007).

Some acute field exposures may cause large and significant difference with very few fish. For example, following an oil spill, a significant EROD induction in rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) and in marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae) was detected using only n ⩾ 3 fish per site ( Jung et al., 2011). The field sampling from which the black bream data set was extracted was conducted selleck outside of the reproductive season for this species to avoid a gender bias in EROD activity. While EROD activity is unbiased by gender in this case, other parameters such as GSI and reproductive parameters in general could not be investigated properly using this data set because the fish were not sexually mature. While a 10% change in these parameters required that 43–106 fish be sampled, the field data suggest that only 13–36 fish per site would be sufficient, as inter-site

differences in LSI and GSI often varied by more than 10%. Four factors will influence the required number of samples (n) to collect. The first, the significance level α, is almost uniformly accepted at α = 0.05, meaning that for 1 in 20 comparisons, there may be a false positive and incorrect conclusions about effects. Lowering α causes n to increase dramatically but it may be practical to collect a larger number of samples if the biomarker analyses are inexpensive, or if more fish are needed for other responses. The second factor is the desired minimum detectable difference amongst sites, which will be specific to each location and to each biomarker. No obvious rulings exist for the magnitude of change that can be appropriate to specific situations (Hanson et al., 2010). For each biomarker, we estimated a biologically or environmentally relevant degree of change between reference and impacted fish (Table 1).

Both ANP and BNP are abundantly expressed in the heart and are se

Both ANP and BNP are abundantly expressed in the heart and are secreted mainly from the atria and ventricles, respectively.

However, CNP is mainly expressed in the central nervous system, bone and vasculature (Nishikime et al., 2010 and Tobias, 2011). Classically, the clearance of all NPs is carried out by NPR-C and by the neutral endopeptidase (NEP); both of check details these proteins are widely expressed in the kidneys, lungs and vascular walls (Chen and Burnett, 2006). The three mammalian NPs have been extensively investigated for use as therapeutic agents in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Over almost 30 years of research, NPs have been found in mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and in plants. Recently, they have also been found in bacteria (Vink et al., 2010). The first natriuretic peptide isolated from animal venoms was a vasorelaxant peptide. This 38 amino acid residue peptide was isolated from green mamba venom and named dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP). Many natriuretic peptides have subsequently been isolated from snake venoms, including Brazilian snakes, such as Crotalus durissus cascavella ( Evangelista et al., 2008), Bothrops jararaca ( Higuchi et al., 1999), Bothrops HSP inhibition moojeni ( Menin et al., 2008) and Lachesis muta ( Soares et al., 2005). Many genes encoding C-type natriuretic peptides have also been described ( Harvey,

2006). Scorpion venoms are rich sources of small peptide toxins. However, no natriuretic peptides have been isolated from scorpion venom thus far. However, a new family of peptides, called hypotensins, has been isolated from the venom of the yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus. These toxins share a similar amino acid signature with the bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) found in snake venoms ( Verano-Braga et al., 2008 and Verano-Braga et al., 2010). In snakes, BPPs and CNP are encoded by the same gene ( Assakura et al., 2000). This work describes the isolation, sequencing and tridimensional homology modeling of the first C-type natriuretic peptide from scorpion venom. Its effects on the

renal function of rats and the mRNA expression of the natriuretic peptide receptors in the kidneys were also evaluated. T. serrulatus venom was acquired from the Instituto Butantan (São Paulo, Brazil). All salts and reagents were of analytical grade Morin Hydrate and were obtained from certified suppliers. Crude T. serrulatus venom (35 mg) was dissolved in 1.0 mL of ammonium bicarbonate buffer (1 M, pH 8.0). The solution was centrifuged at 4500 × g for 10 min and the supernatant was filtered with a 0.22 μm PVDF filter membrane. Then, 300 μL of the venom solution was loaded onto a Superdex® Gel Filtration Column Peptide HR10/300 GL coupled in a semi preparative Jasco HPLC system (Easton, MD, USA). This column was equilibrated with ammonium bicarbonate buffer (0.25 M, pH 7.8) for 40 min before sample application.

PBMCs responded differently in vitro to iHg, methyl Hg (MeHg), or

PBMCs responded differently in vitro to iHg, methyl Hg (MeHg), or ethyl Hg (EtHg). Both iHg and MeHg increased pro-inflammatory cytokine release while EtHg decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine release. These results indicate that both organic and inorganic species of Hg can

affect the human immune system, though they may exert different influences on immune function. In vivo, we found that Hg-exposed gold-miners with increased levels of biomarkers of autoimmune dysfunction (serum titers of antinuclear or antinucleolar autoantibodies) had significantly higher serum Baf-A1 in vitro concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ as compared to a referent group of non-Hg exposed miners. Taken together, these results indicate consistent findings between in vitro and in vivo assessment of Hg immunotoxicity. Research supported by FNS-Brazil, Cure Autism Now, and NIEHS. “
“Cadmium (Cd) is a relatively rare toxic heavy metal and is found in the earths’ crust from 0.1 to 0.5 μg/g, and in the atmosphere from 0.1 to 5.0 ng/m3. Industrial activities, mainly zinc production and the use of Cd in pigments, plastic stabilizers, and batteries have significantly increased the amount of Cd in

the biosphere, and as a consequence Cd exposure of humans (The International Cadmium Association; The major source for Cd uptake by (non-smoking) humans is food, and tobacco smoking approximately doubles the daily Cd uptake (ATSDR, 2009, Authority, 2009, Friberg and Dolutegravir clinical trial Nordberg, 1986 and Jarup

and Akesson, 2009). In the human body Cd has a half-life of 10–30 years and accumulates massively in organs like liver, kidney, and testes. Further, Abu-Hayyeh et al. demonstrated that also the vascular system is another target Sitaxentan organ for Cd deposition (Cd concentrations of up to 20 μM were observed in the aortic wall of heavy smokers) (Abu-Hayyeh et al., 2001, ATSDR, 2009, Satarug and Moore, 2004 and Staessen et al., 2001). In past decades the health threat of chronic low dose Cd exposure was underestimated. Accordingly, the European Food Safety Authority has reduced the provisional tolerable weekly intake from 7 μg/kg to 2.5 μg/kg in 2009 (Authority, 2011). Apart from the well known toxic effects of Cd on liver, kidneys and testis, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified Cd as a human carcinogen (Achanzar et al., 2001, Benbrahim-Tallaa et al., 2007, Benbrahim-Tallaa et al., 2009, CANCER, 1997, Joseph, 2009 and Waalkes, 2003), and recent studies, including ours, clearly indicate that Cd is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (Messner et al., 2009 and Peters et al., 2010).

Mitf-M is readily detectable in the nuclei of normal HeMa-LP cell

Mitf-M is readily detectable in the nuclei of normal HeMa-LP cells and A2058 metastatic

melanoma cells, but is decreased or lost from the nuclei of MelJuso, M14, G361 and Malme-3 M cells. These data suggest that Mitf-M is necessary for the regulation of genes required for the maintenance and differentiation of melanocytes, as absence of Mitf-M in the nucleus is seen only in melanoma lines. The Mitf gene is amplified in some melanomas, and it has been suggested that Mitf can function as a melanoma oncogene [43]. Mitf is down-regulated in B-raf transformed murine melanocytes and B-raf overexpressing human melanocytes, and exogenous reexpression of Mitf inhibited the proliferation of these cells [44]. These data suggest a tumor-suppressive or differentiation-promoting role for Mitf in melanocytes. This role is consistent with the function LY294002 research buy of Mitf in regulating cell cycle arrest via activation of p21/WAF1 and p16Ink4a [45] and [46]. Since the melanoma line A2058 shows abundant expression of Mitf-M and other Mitf isoforms in the nucleus, this suggests that Mitf can support both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions. Cumulatively, these Compound C mouse data suggest that Rad6 may be a more reliable marker than Mitf for melanoma development.

Double labeling analysis of Rad6 and Melan-A, and Rad6 and β-catenin in normal adjacent and transformed areas of the same SSMM specimens shed further light on the significance of Rad6 as Janus kinase (JAK) a potential

early marker for neoplastic conversion to melanoma. When melanocyte homeostasis is tightly regulated by keratinocytes, a process occurring in normal skin, Rad6 is undetectable. However, when homeostasis regulation is lost, as evidenced by increases in the number of Melan-A positive cells, Rad6 expression becomes noticeable. However, it is interesting to note that Rad6 expression is not initially localized in melanocytes, but rather expressed in the neighboring keratinocytes, prompting us to speculate that up-regulation of Rad6 in neighboring cells likely plays a role in the deregulation of melanocyte homeostasis and contributes to the risk of melanoma development. This supposition is supported not only by concurrent increases in the number of Melan-A positive cells, but also by increases in Melan-A/Rad6 double positive cells in tumor regions. Since the first detectable increase in Rad6 expression occurs in the neighboring keratinocytes that strongly express β-catenin prompts us to speculate that Rad6 gene expression may be induced by β-catenin, it’s transcriptional activator [25].

On one view, intention

to act is a perception-like experi

On one view, intention

to act is a perception-like experience that occurs when activity within frontal motor networks exceeds a threshold level (Fried et al., 2011, Hallett, 2007 and Matsuhashi and Hallett, 2008). On this view, the increased level of “motor noise” in GTS might require a more conservative threshold for detecting volition, in order to avoid excessive sensitivity to noise. This increased threshold would in turn produce delays in the perceived urge to move (Hallett, 2007) (see Fig. 1). This view therefore predicts that tic parameters should correlate with mean W judgement. Studies of developmental tic disorders could therefore selleck inhibitor potentially clarify the processes whereby voluntary control emerges from the wider noise of involuntary sensorimotor activity, and becomes a characteristic cognitive and phenomenological event. In particular, we speculated that the experience of volition in GTS could resemble a perception-like signal Paclitaxel clinical trial detection process, rather than a post hoc explanation of actions. Investigating this hypothesis would also provide an important

window into the learning process assumed to underlie the normal development of capacity for voluntary action. We therefore tested the experience of volition in 27 adolescents with GTS, and 30 healthy volunteers, using a cross-sectional design. We hypothesised that high levels of tics would be associated with delays in the normal experience of volition, because the characteristic neural activities that signal

one’s own volition would be lost in motor noise, delaying awareness of one’s own intentions. As a control for non-specific features of the task unrelated to volition, patients and controls also judged the perceived time of the keypress action itself. Twenty-seven adolescents (21 male) diagnosed with GTS aged between 10 and 17 years (mean age 13.7 years ± 2.3 SD) were recruited from the GTS outpatient clinic in the Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (clinical characteristics given in Supplementary Table 1). In two cases we were unable to collect scores on all clinical tests, so only 25 patients could be included in correlation analyses. The control group comprised 30 age-matched healthy control subjects (16 male, mean age 13 years ± 2.2 SD; range 10–17). All subjects and their parents gave their written informed consent those prior to study participation. The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethics committee (PV4049). All subjects underwent a thorough clinical assessment (A.M., C.G.) based on a semi-structured neuropsychiatric interview adapted from Robertson and Eapen (Robertson & Eapen, 1996). DSM-IV-TR criteria were used for a diagnosis of GTS (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Tic severity was determined using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) (Leckman et al., 1989) and the Modified Rush Video Scale (MRVS) (Goetz, Pappert, Louis, Raman, & Leurgans, 1999).

Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses “

Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“Doente do sexo masculino com 58 anos de idade, admitido no ambulatório de gastroenterologia com história de dor abdominal learn more e alterações nos hábitos intestinais durante os últimos 20 dias, associados a náuseas, calafrios e flatulência. Negava vómitos ou febre. Apresentava bom estado geral no exame objetivo, com desconforto à palpação no quadrante inferior direito do abdómen, sem sinais de irritação peritoneal ou massas palpáveis. Os exames laboratoriais gerais foram considerados normais, exceto pela presença de leucocitose, com uma contagem global de 11.600/uL e de hiperglicemia:

140 mg/dL. Submetido ao exame de radiografia e ultrassonografia abdominal que foram considerados normais. Mantido em observação domiciliar, com analgésicos não opioides, foi reavaliado após 48 horas, apresentando-se com manutenção do quadro clínico. Solicitada uma tomografia computadorizada abdominal, que revelou uma massa inflamatória envolvendo o mesentério cólico associado a edema da parede cecal CCI-779 concentration e a uma colonoscopia que evidenciou a mucosa do ceco hiperemiada e congestiva, notando-se o orifício apendicular edemaciado e drenando secreção

purulenta (Figura 1 and Figura 2). A apendicite aguda é uma das mais frequentes doenças de tratamento cirúrgico de urgência cujo diagnóstico é eminentemente clínico, baseado na história natural e no exame físico do doente, entretanto, os exames radiológicos e laboratoriais tem uma participação ativa no auxílio diagnóstico. A faixa etária jovem é a mais acometida, com maior prevalência do sexo masculino. Em algumas situações cuja manifestação clínica é atípica e devido à sua ampla variedade dos diagnósticos diferenciais o emprego da colonoscopia pode ser eventualmente útil1 and 2. Os achados endoscópicos incluem

abaulamento do orifício apendicular, edema da mucosa adjacente, acompanhado da drenagem de secreção purulenta que pode contribuir para uma atenuação do curso clínico3. Os autores declaram Inositol oxygenase não haver conflito de interesses. “
“A 77-year-old woman was presented to our hospital with a six-month history of heartburn and chest pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed several dark flat irregularly delineated areas in the middle third of the esophagus (Fig. 1a and b). Histological examination of these lesions revealed an increased number of pigment-laden dendritic cells in the basal layer of the epithelium, with no cellular atypia that stained positive with Masson-Fontana (Fig. 2), prompting the diagnosis of esophageal melanocytosis. This rare condition is characterized by melanocytic proliferation in the basal layer of esophageal squamous epithelium with an increased deposition of melanin. About 30 cases have been reported so far, the majority of which in Indian and Japanese populations.

0 in, 2009) A group of 13 flavonoids (Table 1) was selected to d

0 in, 2009). A group of 13 flavonoids (Table 1) was selected to determine a structure–activity relationship using ARG-L as the drug target. The compounds were screened at 125 μM concentrations in the presence of 50 mM substrate l-arginine at pH 9.5, the

optimal pH of the enzyme. Under these conditions, only three compounds, apigenin, isovitexin and vitexin, inhibited less than 50% of the enzyme activity. Galangin and quercitrin achieved 50–70% inhibition, whereas isoquercitrin, isoorientin and orientin achieved 70–75% inhibition. The best inhibitors were fisetin (87%), luteolin (83%), quercetin (83%) and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone Selleck AZD9291 (80%). Using the same conditions, these compounds did not significantly inhibit ARG-1 from the rat, which was used as a model for the mammalian enzyme. At a concentration of 1 mM, all of the tested compounds inhibited ARG-1 by <50%. Based on results from this study, the flavonoids showed specific inhibition of ARG-L, and did not act through the ARG-1 route. The interaction of fisetin with ARG-1 was less stable than that with ARG-L, confirming the selectivity of fisetin for the

parasite enzyme. The energy value found for the interaction between fisetin and ARG-1 was −62.5 kcal/mol, compared to −85.8 kcal/mol with the parasite ARG-L. Fisetin docking (Fig. 3) shows a rotation of 180° in the position of interactions with ARG-1 and ARG-L. There learn more is an inversion Cytidine deaminase of fisetin interaction with the distinct enzyme when it looks for Ser150 and Asp245 in ARG-L, and equivalent amino acids Ser137 and Asp234 in ARG-1: the catechol group from fisetin donates a hydrogen bond (H-bond) to Ser150 in ARG-L, while, in ARG-1, the

hydroxyl group at position 7 on the flavone group donates an H-bond to Ser137, which is the position equivalent to Ser150 in ARG-L. This inversion allows for a close hydrophobic interaction of His154 and His139 with the double ring of the flavone group of fisetin, and enhances the stability of this inhibitor with ARG-L. The constants Ki and Ki′ refer to the equilibrium established between the enzyme (E) and substrate (S) in the presence of an inhibitor (I). The inhibition constant Ki refers to the dissociation constant of the complex EI, while Ki′ refers to the dissociation of the EIS ( Cornish-Bowden, 1974). Eight compounds, with an IC50 of less than 20 μM, were selected for analysis of the mechanism of enzyme inhibition. The aglycone compounds, such as quercetin, luteolin and fisetin, exhibited mixed inhibition, while the glycoside flavonoids, such as orientin and isoorientin, showed uncompetitive inhibition. The compounds quercitrin, isoquercitrin and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone showed non-competitive inhibition. Table 1 summarizes the kinetic data obtained with the Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots that were used to calculate the constants Ki and Ki′ (Fig. 1).

As we elucidate in Section 3 2, the plants compared were in very

As we elucidate in Section 3.2, the plants compared were in very different growth stages and previously published results suggest that lettuce plants have higher concentrations of caffeoyl

derivatives in early than in later growth stages (Romani et al., 2002). Hence, we do not suppose that the elevated concentrations can be interpreted Ruxolitinib manufacturer as the plants’ response to low temperatures but rather interpret this as a developmental bias. Of the three phenolic acids that were evaluated, only the concentration of caffeoylmalic acid differed between plants cultivated in different temperature regimes, and only regarding small heads. This heterogeneity is in agreement with previously published results, indicating differences amongst phenolic acids regarding their response to environmental impacts (Oh et al., 2009) and amongst results obtained DAPT ic50 by different

studies (Grace et al., 1998, Løvdal et al., 2010 and Zidorn, 2010). Caffeoylmalic acid does not comprise the highest number of antioxidant structures per molecule (only one ortho 3′,4′-dihydroxy moiety whereas chicoric acid comprises one in each of the two caffeic acid moieties). Thus, we suppose the accumulation of caffeoylmalic acid in small heads has a function different from the commonly described antioxidant. Furthermore, there is no special similarity structure-wise between caffeoylmalic acid and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside which could explain why these two phenolic compounds were present in higher concentration in cool- than in warm-cultivated small heads. Unlike anthocyanins, phenolic acids do not absorb radiation in the wavelengths relevant for photosynthesis. Phenolic acids generally have their absorption maximum in the UV waveband and are therefore often considered UV protectants. 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase However it is not very likely that UV played a role in our experiment as the applied radiation contained hardly UV radiation (HPS lamps; about 0.7% UV A and 0% UV B). Løvdal et al. (2010) detected the

strongest accumulation of caffeoyl derivatives in tomato leaves in response to a combination of high light, low nitrogen supply and low temperatures, indicating that temperature alone is not the trigger. Hence, the low-key impact we detected in our experiment might be due to our constant PPFD, the close monitoring of nutrient solution, and application of the lowest temperature outside the photoperiod. We were able to confirm the hypothesis that low temperatures increase the concentration of flavonoids and phenolic acids in lettuce only for cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside and caffeoylmalic acid: Their concentration was higher in cool-cultivated than in warm-cultivated small heads.