Actions SC79 cell line are needed by the FDA, national societies, and the manufacturer to ensure that all high-risk patients continue to get the needed therapy to reduce the number of preterm births. (Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:1408-12) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31821c2d75″
“Objective. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) reduces airway smooth muscle in patients with severe asthma. We developed a novel standardized histologic grading system assessing inflammation and structural remodeling on endobronchial biopsy (EBBx) in severe persistent asthma and evaluated airway structure before and after BT. In addition, we correlated invasive

and non-invasive inflammatory markers in severe persistent asthma. Methods. Thirty-three patients with severe persistent asthma underwent bronchoscopy, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and diagnostic EBBx. The control group (N=41) underwent EBBx for other clinical indications. Biopsies were graded for airway inflammation and epithelial and submucosal structural features. We also evaluated airway histology R406 cell line in three patients before and after BT. Results. Compared to the control group, patients with severe persistent asthma

more often had intraepithelial eosinophils and lymphocytes (67% vs. 17% and 61% vs. 27%; p<.001 and p=.005, respectively) and prominent smooth muscle and goblet cell hyperplasia (88% vs. 29% and 47% vs. 22%, p<.001 and p=.004, respectively). Other features including epithelial denudation and basement membrane thickening were not significantly different. Following BT, airway smooth muscle was no longer prominent due to partial replacement by fibrosis. Increased submucosal eosinophilic inflammation

and BAL eosinophilia correlated with exhaled nitric oxide (eNO, p=.05 for both). Conclusions. We developed a clinically applicable standardized histologic grading system which identified structural but not inflammatory changes before and after BT in severe persistent asthmatics. Additionally, we demonstrated that eNO is representative of submucosal eosinophilia in this population. This semi-quantitative assessment THZ1 will be useful for practicing pathologists assessing EBBx from severe persistent asthma patients for diagnostic and clinical research purposes.”
“In this study, we used manual delineation of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the spatial and temporal characteristics of the cerebellar atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Ten subjects with SCA2 were compared to ten controls. The volume of the pons, the total cerebellum, and the individual cerebellar lobules were calculated via manual delineation of structural MRI. SCA2 showed substantial global atrophy of the cerebellum. Furthermore, the degeneration was lobule specific, selectively affecting the anterior lobe, VI, Crus I, Crus II, VIII, uvula, corpus medullare, and pons, while sparing VIIB, tonsil/paraflocculus, flocculus, declive, tuber/folium, pyramis, and nodulus.

“Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a unique form of chronic

“Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a unique form of chronic pancreatitis characterised by a high serum IgG4 concentration

and complications that include various extrapancreatic manifestations, one of which is sclerosing cholangitis. In AIP patients, infiltration of abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells and dense fibrosis are commonly observed in the pancreas AR-13324 mouse and wall of the bile duct and gallbladder. The major symptom at onset of AIP is obstructive jaundice caused by stricture of the bile duct, and this requires differential diagnosis of AIP from pancreato-biliary malignancies and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Recently, there have been reports of particular cases of sclerosing cholangitis with a high serum IgG4 level and cholangiographic and pathological findings comparable to those observed in AIP patients. Being apparently different from PSC and similar to that in AIP, sclerosing cholangitis with and without All? shows

a clinical response to steroid therapy and thus is designated as ‘IgG4-associated sclerosing cholangitis’. The pathogenesis of AIP and IgG4-associated sclerosing cholangitis remains at yet undetermined. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“”"Sperm mediated gene transfer”" (SMGT) is based on the ability of sperm cells to bind exogenous DNA. The main objective of this study was to improve the production of transgenic pigs by SMGT. Taking into account that there is a lack of repeatability in studies of SMGT and that the mechanism of binding and internalization of STA-9090 purchase exogenous DNA is a question that has not been solved, different factors involved in the production of transgenic animals by SMGT method were evaluated.

Here we set out to: (1) evaluate the sperm capacity to bind exogenous DNA after DMSO treatment; (2) determine the location of the transgene-spermatozoa VX-689 Cell Cycle inhibitor interaction; and (3) evaluate the efficiency of production of transgenic piglets by deep intrauterine artificial insemination (AI) with sperm incubated with DNA. The percentage of DNA binding was higher than 30% after 2 h of co-culture, but it was not affected by sperm treatment with DMSO (0.3% or 3%). The integrity of the sperm plasma membrane plays a critical role in DNA interaction, and altered plasma membranes facilitate interactions with exogenous DNA. DNA bound mainly to spermatozoa with reduced viability. DNA molecules were found to be mainly associated to the post-acrosomal region (61.9%). After deep intrauterine Al a total of 29 piglets were obtained, but none of them integrated the transgene. In conclusion, although it has been confirmed that DNA can associate with boar spermatozoa, the efficiency of producing transgenic pigs by Al was not confirmed by the present experiments, mainly due to a reduced DNA binding to functional spermatozoa. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Results Six patients with lateral screw direction after a DVR ma

Results. Six patients with lateral screw direction after a DVR maneuver required screw removal because of proximity to the aorta. All patients had intraoperative confirmation of adequate screw placement

before introducing the rod and performing derotation.

Conclusions. The biologic limitations of vertebrae are approached as we strive to achieve further correction of the spine. Surgeons’ experience and methods to assess proper screw placement may give a false sense of adequate final implant position after DVR. Vigilance to ensure proper pedicle screw position can avoid potential iatrogenic catastrophes.”
“Study Design. A multicenter prospective cohort Alvocidib molecular weight study.

Objective. To compare the effect of all pedicle screw versus hybrid constructs on patient self-assessment of appearance after posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This will contribute

to future cost-effective analyses on surgical management of AIS.

Summary of Background Data. For surgical management of AIS, the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument (SRS-30) are reliable surveys of patient satisfaction, but neither tool has been used to assess outcome by implant type.

Methods. Patients received either all pedicle screws or hybrid instrumentation. Self-assessment of selleck inhibitor appearance pre- and after surgery was measured by SAQ and SRS-30. Statistical significance was evaluated through P values (P < 0.01 in the SAQ, Nirogacestat order P < 0.05 in the SRS-30)

and effect sizes.

Results. There were 93 patients in the all pedicle screw cohort and 61 in the hybrid cohort. There were no significant preoperative differences between the cohorts in the SAQ or SRS-30. All pedicle screw patients tended to see more improvement in shoulder level than hybrid patients in 2 separate SAQ questions (P = 0.025, Cohen’s D = 0.20; P = 0.013, D = 0.24). The screw patients also tended to have better scores than hybrid patients in the category, “”looking better in clothes”" (P = 0.017, V = 0.24) at 2 years postoperative. All pedicle screw patients self-reported significant greater improvement than hybrid patients in the SRS-30 Appearance and Mental domains (P = 0.016, ES = 0.038; P = 0.005, ES = 0.051). There were no significant differences between cohorts in age, gender, baseline curve, or major curve magnitude.

Conclusion. All pedicle screw constructs lead to better self-assessment of appearance in operative treatment of AIS, as determined by SAQ and SRS-30.”
“Study Design. This is a prospective in vivo study comparing radiation exposure to the surgeon during 10 minimally invasive lumbar microdiscectomy cases with 10 traditional open discectomy cases as a control.


For patients with gouty arthritis, the diagnosis is confirmed by

For patients with gouty arthritis, the diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of monosodium uric acid (MSU) crystals in the SF, and these crystals are long, pointed ended and needle-shaped and they show strongly negative birefringence. Sometimes, it is difficult to diagnosis between gouty arthritis and other type of inflammatory arthritis. We experienced two unusual cases of gouty arthritis that we performed SF analysis for. The first patient was a 35 year old male who presented with relatively typical clinical symptoms with hyperuricemia, but the SF showed acute inflammatory cells without crystals on Cl-amidine nmr light microscopy. Only a few suspected

crystals of MSU were identified on polarizing microscopy. The second patient was a 45 year old male who presented with atypical symptoms and pain and swelling of the left ankle and knee joint for 3 weeks. The uric acid level in the serum and urine was increased, but not over the normal limit. However, on light and polarizing microscopy, there were numerous MSU crystals in the SF Conclusively, in some cases of gouty arthritis, the crystals are not identified

on light microscopy or the uric acid level is not dramatically increased. So, the polarizing microscopy, the clinical information and the laboratory findings are all included in the work-up when evaluating the SF cytology of arthritis patients.”
“Endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease is characterized by changes in vasoregulation, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen intermediates, inflammatory activation, and altered barrier ZD1839 function. These endothelial alterations contribute to excess cardiovascular disease in diabetes, but may

also play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, especially type 2. The mechanisms Crenigacestat solubility dmso underlying endothelial dysfunction in diabetes differ between type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D): hyperglycemia contributes to endothelial dysfunction in all individuals with diabetes, whereas the causative mechanisms in T2D also include impaired insulin signaling in endothelial cells, dyslipidemia and altered secretion of bioactive substances (adipokines) by adipose tissue. The close association of so-called perivascular adipose tissue with arteries and arterioles facilitates the exposure of vascular endothelium to adipokines, particularly if inflammation activates the adipose tissue. Glucose and adipokines activate specific intracellular signaling pathways in endothelium, which in concert result in endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Here, we review the characteristics of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes, the causative mechanisms involved and the role of endothelial dysfunction(s) in the pathogenesis of T2D. Finally, we will discuss the therapeutic potential of endothelial dysfunction in T2D.”
“Background: The posterior interosseous nerve is at risk for iatrogenic injury during surgery involving the, proximal aspect of the radius.

“Accurate reconstruction of prehistoric social organizatio

“Accurate reconstruction of prehistoric social organization is important if we are to put together satisfactory multidisciplinary scenarios about, for example, the dispersal of human groups. Such considerations apply in the case of Indo-European and Austronesian, two large-scale language families that are thought to represent Neolithic expansions. Ancestral kinship patterns have mostly been inferred through reconstruction of kin terminologies in ancestral proto-languages using the linguistic comparative method, and through geographical or distributional arguments based on the comparative patterns of kin terms and ethnographic kinship ‘facts’.

While these approaches are detailed and valuable, the processes through which conclusions have been drawn from the data fail to provide explicit criteria for systematic testing of alternative hypotheses. Here, we use language trees CCI-779 in vitro derived using phylogenetic tree-building techniques on Indo-European and Austronesian vocabulary data. With these trees, ethnographic data and Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods, we statistically reconstruct past marital

residence and NVP-AUY922 purchase infer rates of cultural change between different residence forms, showing Proto-Indo-European to be virilocal and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian uxorilocal. The instability of uxorilocality and the rare loss of virilocality once gained emerge as common features of both families.”
“Quinpirole-induced vertical jumping is a phenomenon

first observed in rats treated from birth, once a day for 21 days or more, with the dopamine D-2 receptor agonist quinpirole. This quinpirole-induced behavioral sensitization is known JQ-EZ-05 price as a priming process. To determine whether dopaminergic innervation influenced this priming phenomenon, groups of rats were lesioned at 3 days after birth with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 67 mu g in each lateral ventricle; desipramine pretreatment, 20 mg/kg ip, 1 h). Rats were additionally treated daily from birth with quinpirole HCl (3.0 mg/kg ip, salt form). Controls received saline vehicle in place of 6-OHDA and/or quinpirole. When rats were placed in individual observation cages (1 h acclimation) starting at 20 days after birth, acute quinpirole treatment produced vertical jumping in the quinpirole-primed group; and the effect persisted through the twenty-ninth day. In rats additionally lesioned with 6-OHDA, vertical jumping was enhanced at 20, 24, 26/27, and 28/29 day-with there being as much as a 32-fold increase in vertical jumping versus the group that was primed with quinpirole, but not lesioned with 6-OHDA. This finding indicates that an ontogenetic 6-OHDA lesion enhances quinpirole-induced vertical jumping in rats and that dopaminergic innervation may normally exert a suppressive effect on vertical jumping.

Causal conclusions cannot be made from our data A beneficial eff

Causal conclusions cannot be made from our data. A beneficial effect of sun exposure per se needs to be examined in other studies.”
“OBJECTIVES: Childhood cancer mortality has substantially declined worldwide as a result of significant advances in global cancer care. Because limited information is available in Brazil, we analyzed trends in childhood cancer mortality in five Brazilian regions over 29 years.

METHODS: Data from children 0-14 years old were extracted from the Health Mortality Information System for 1979 through 2008. Age-adjusted

mortality rates, crude mortality rates, and age-specific mortality rates by geographic region of Brazil and for the entire country find more were analyzed for all cancers and leukemia. Mortality trends were evaluated for all childhood cancers and leukemia using joinpoint regression.

RESULTS: Mortality declined significantly for the entire period (1979-2008) for children with leukemia. Childhood cancer mortality rates declined in the South and Southeast, remained stable in the Middle West, and increased in the North and Northeast. Although the mortality rates did not unilaterally decrease in all regions, the age-adjusted mortality rates were relatively similar among the five Brazilian regions from 2006-2008.


Childhood cancer mortality Epigenetic inhibitor declined 1.2 to 1.6% per year in the South and Southeast regions.”
“Objective: To examine the safety and effectiveness of fully implantable middle ear devices in the treatment of hearing loss.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were MS-275 mouse searched without date or language limits.

Study Selection: Titles and abstracts of 7,700 citations were screened, and 30 articles were selected for full review, of which, 7 articles on the Esteem and 13 on the Carina met the study’s eligibility criteria.

Data Extraction: Information was

extracted using a pretested data abstraction form, and study quality was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence.

Data Synthesis: Because of heterogeneity across studies, meta-analysis was not performed, and comparisons were made by structured review.

Conclusion: The majority of studies were quasi-experimental, prepost comparisons of aided and unaided conditions. Complication rates with the Esteem were higher than with the Carina, and most commonly included taste disturbance. However, device failure was common with the Carina, predominately related to charging difficulties. For both devices, clinically significant improvements in functional gain, speech reception, and speech recognition over the unaided condition were found. In studies comparing the Esteem or Carina to hearing aids, findings were mixed. Although improvements in functional gain were similar to those for hearing aids, speech recognition and quality of life were greater with the implants.

However, the surgical invasiveness of HPD is considerable

However, the surgical invasiveness of HPD is considerable.

We present our treatment option for patients with distal bile duct cancer showing mucosal spreading to the hepatic hilum associated with impaired liver function. To minimize resection volume of the liver, an isolated caudate lobectomy (CL) with pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) using an anterior liver splitting approach is

presented. Liver transection lines and bile duct resection points correspond complete with our standard right and left hemihepatectomies with CL for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.

Total operation Salubrinal order time was 765 min, and pedicle occlusion time was 124 min, respectively. Although the proximal mucosal cancer extension was identified at both the right and the left hepatic ducts, all resection margins were negative for cancer.

Isolated CX-6258 supplier CL with PD is an alternative radical treatment option for bile duct cancer patients with impaired liver function.”
“Objective. We performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effects of alpha lipoic acid for symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods. The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the key words “”lipoic acid”", “”thioctic

acid”", “”diabet*”", and the MeSH-terms “” thioctic acid”" and “” diabetes mellitus”". Randomised controlled trials using the TSS score as the outcome measure were selected and assessed for their methodological quality. Study selection and quality assessment were performed independently by three observers. Results. Overall, the pooled standardized mean difference

estimated from all trials revealed a reduction in TSS scores of -2.26 (CI: -3.12 to -1.41; P = 0.00001) in favour of alpha lipoic acid administration. Subgroup analyses of oral administration (-1.78 CI: -2.45 to -1.10; P = 0.00001) and intravenous administration (-2.81 CI: -4.16 to -1.46; P = 0.0001) confirmed the robustness of the overall result. Conclusions. When given intravenously at a dosage of 600 mg/day over a period of 3 weeks, alpha lipoic acid leads to a significant and clinically relevant reduction in neuropathic pain (grade of recommendation A). It is unclear if the significant improvements seen after 3-5 weeks of oral administration at a dosage of >= 600 mg/day are clinically relevant.”
“Laboratory monitoring of amiodarone therapy is recommended due to the high incidence of adverse events associated with the drug. The use of appropriate monitoring is unknown at pediatric hospitals. The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried during a 5-year period for all patients who received amiodarone while hospitalized. Use of thyroid function testing, hepatic function testing, electrocardiogram, pulmonary function testing, and chest X-ray for patients was identified.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3367974]“

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3367974]“
“A major analytical challenge in computational biology is the detection and description of clusters of specified site types, such as polymorphic or substituted sites within DNA or protein sequences. Progress has been stymied by a lack of suitable methods to detect clusters and to estimate the extent of clustering in discrete linear sequences, particularly when there is no a priori specification of cluster size or cluster count. Here we derive and demonstrate a maximum likelihood method of hierarchical clustering. Our method

incorporates a tripartite divide-and-conquer strategy that models sequence heterogeneity, delineates clusters, and yields a profile of the level of clustering associated with each site. selleckchem The clustering model may be evaluated via model selection using the Akaike Information AC220 Criterion, the corrected Akaike Information

Criterion, and the Bayesian Information Criterion. Furthermore, model averaging using weighted model likelihoods may be applied to incorporate model uncertainty into the profile of heterogeneity across sites. We evaluated our method by examining its performance on a number of simulated datasets as well as on empirical polymorphism data from diverse natural alleles of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Our method yielded greater power for the detection of clustered sites across a breadth of parameter ranges, and achieved better accuracy and precision of estimation of clusters, than did the existing empirical cumulative distribution function statistics.”

study PND-1186 concentration evaluates satisfaction with care (SC) in cancer patients treated at a Spanish day hospital to identify SC determinants and assess the relationship between SC and quality of life.

MethodsOne hundred seventy-six patients with different tumour sites and disease stages completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Cancer Outpatient Satisfaction with Care questionnaire for chemotherapy (OUT-PATSAT35 CT), the Oberst patients’ perception of care quality and satisfaction scales, and an item on intention to recommend the hospital. Frequencies in the SC instruments, Spearman correlations between each scale of the OUT-PATSAT35 CT and overall satisfaction and between the subscales of OUT-PATSAT35 CT and of QLQ-C30 were calculated, and the determinants of patients’ SC were calculated through multivariate regression models.

ResultsSatisfaction with care was high: mean scores were >70 in all OUT-PATSAT35 CT areas except doctor availability and environment. These scores were in line with the other SC instruments. Correlation with overall satisfaction was high and statistically significant (p<0.01) for all subscales, especially for the nurses domain, which also had higher SC scores. Correlations between the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the OUT-PATSAT35 CT were low (0.

8% vs 15 1% vs

36 1%) and live birth rate (37 7% vs 13 2%

8% vs 15.1% vs

36.1%) and live birth rate (37.7% vs 13.2% vs 30.6%) were significantly lower this website in group II when compared to group I and group III. Multiple pregnancy rates (39.6% vs 0.0%, vs 0.0%) were significantly higher in group I when compared to group II and III. Implantation rates were significantly higher in group III when compared to group I and group II. Miscarriage rates were comparable among the groups.

ConclusionThe mandatory SET policy caused a dramatic decrease of multiple pregnancy rates. Mandatory SET with only day-3 embryo transfers decreased the pregnancy rates but this detrimental effect was not seen in cycles with day-5 embryo transfers.”
“Low bone mass density (BMD), a classical age-related health issue and a known health concern for fair skinned,

thin, postmenopausal Caucasian women, check details is found to be common among individuals with developmental/intellectual disabilities (D/IDs). It is the consensus that BMDis decreased in both men and women with D/ID. Maintaining good bone health is important for this population as fractures could potentially go undetected in nonverbal individuals, leading to increased morbidity and a further loss of independence. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of bone health of adults with D/ID, their risk of fractures, and how this compares to the general aging population. We will specifically focus on the bone health of two common developmental disabilities, Down syndrome (DS) and cerebral palsy (CP), and will discuss BMD

and fracture rates in these complex populations. Gaining a greater understanding of how bone health is affected in individuals with D/ID could lead to better customized treatments for these specific populations.”
“Objective: Anlotinib order The anorexia seen in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients may be due partially to factors of dialysis solutions, such as pH and buffering agent. We tested the effects of different PD solutions in an experimental rat model for appetite.

Design: The intraoral intake of a sucrose solution from an implanted intraoral cannula in freely moving male Wistar rats was used to evaluate appetite at 30 minutes and 120 minutes after intraperitoneal (IP) infusion of bicarbonate (25 mmol/L)/lactate (15 mmol/L)-based PD solution (P) and conventional lactate (40 mmol/L)-based PD solution (D) with different concentrations of glucose. We also tested different buffer solutions containing lactate and bicarbonate with different pH but with no glucose.

Results: The IP infusion as such and the 30 mL volume did not inhibit appetite; however, appetite was significantly less inhibited by P than by D in the 1.36%, 2.27%, and 3.86% solutions (p < 0.05). Furthermore, intraoral intake was significantly higher in rats receiving IP solution with bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) than with lactate buffer (p < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in intraoral intake for lactate with pH 5.5, pH 6.6, or pH 7.4.

METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study among women unde

METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study among women undergoing LEEP for biopsy-confirmed CIN 2 or 3 at the Family Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Care and Education Services Clinic in Kisumu, Kenya. Women were followed-up 4 weeks after the procedure and questioned for abstinence as well as presence and severity of side effects after the procedure. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable

and multivariable analysis.

RESULTS: Among the 180 (91%) women who returned for a 4-week follow up after LEEP, 52% reported at least one postprocedure symptom, including Ulixertinib cost bleeding, discharge, or pain. Using a Likert scale for severity of symptoms, 179 (99%) reported very mild to mild symptoms, whereas one (1%) participant

described the symptoms as moderate. No participants reported severe symptoms. Mean CD4(+) count was significantly higher among women who reported any symptoms compared with women who reported no symptoms after LEEP (419 cells/mm(3) compared with 349 cells/mm(3) P < . 05), an association that remained significant after adjustment for antiretroviral treatment. The presence or severity of postprocedure symptoms did not differ among women who reported sexual activity (16%) less than 4 weeks after the procedure.

CONCLUSION: LEEP performed GM6001 in vivo by clinical officers was well-accepted by HIV-positive women and appears safe, resulting in minimal side effects, even among women with early resumption of intercourse.”

To determine the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacterial isolates in the routine setting of a large general hospital using an “”in-house”" multiplex polymerase chain reaction method and to establish a paradigm for the definitive identification GS-7977 manufacturer of mycobacteria isolated using semi-automated equipment.

METHODS: Established tests, including polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis, PNB, and NAP inhibition tests as the gold standard, showed 100% agreement with an IS6110/hsp65 multiplex polymerase chain reaction when used to identify stock strains (n = 117).

RESULTS: In a subsequent study, 8,790 clinical specimens producing 476 isolates were evaluated with multiplex PCR and also showed 100% agreement in identification using PRA-polymerase chain reaction as the gold standard. The application of this technique to routine analysis was demonstrated in this study. A method was established with the initial application of multiplex PCR for all positive liquid cultures and the subsequent identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria by polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis. In total, 77% of isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and 23% were non-tuberculous mycobacteria.