“1 Confirming the impacts of invasive plants is essential

“1. Confirming the impacts of invasive plants is essential

for prioritizing management efforts, but is challenging, especially if Napabucasin impacts occur below-ground and over long periods as hypothesized for woodland shrub invasions. 2. For this reason, we developed a novel ‘paired-point’ framework capable of detecting the below-ground impacts of slow-growing invasive plants from short-term data sets in an investigation into the below-ground consequences of European buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica L. (hereafter buckthorn) invasions into Chicago-area woodlands. We measured differences between the members of 97 pairs of buckthorn-invaded and buckthorn-free points in 10 below-ground response variables (RVs) that buckthorn is hypothesized to alter (listed below). We then modelled these differences

(Delta RVs) in response to the severity of the invasion found at each invaded point. A relationship (linear or nonlinear) between a Delta RV and severity, that is slope not equal 0, suggests a buckthorn-induced change. BIX-01294 An intercept (value of Delta RV where severity = 0) different from zero suggests a pre-existing difference. 3. Relating differences to an invasion gradient rather than simply noting their presence provided evidence that the higher levels of moisture, pH, total C, total N, NH4+ – N and Ca2+ in invaded soils pre-date and possibly promote invasion (particularly Ca2+) and that neither earthworm biomass nor soil C : N ratios are associated with buckthorn invasion, all of which suggest buckthorn to be less of a ‘driver’ of below-ground change than hypothesized. We did, however, find evidence that buckthorn establishes in areas having greater leaf litter mass and higher rates of decomposition, and then proceeds to accelerate decomposition further and to alter spring soil NO3 – N levels. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our findings suggest that decisions regarding regional buckthorn management should be less driven by concerns about buckthorn’s below-ground impacts and that greater

consideration of how variation in below-ground CX-6258 factors relates to invader establishment is needed, rather than simply assuming this variation to be invader-induced. This latter consideration can help to design better targeted monitoring programmes, limiting the further spread of woodland invaders. These insights illustrate the utility of the paired-point framework both for investigating below-ground causes and consequences of slow-growing invasive plants and for guiding the management of these invasions.”
“Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to drive recurrence and metastasis. Their identity has been linked to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) but remains highly controversial since-depending on the cell-line studied-either epithelial (E) or mesenchymal (M) markers, alone or together have been associated with stemness.

RESULTS: There was no significant change in the number of total c

RESULTS: There was no significant change in the number of total cases; total chief resident cases; and trauma, thoracic, or vascular procedures done per graduate. A decrease in the number of liver cases performed by the residents was noted

but includes the increase in resident complement as well as the fellowship. ACS fellow cases increased from 172 cases in the first year to 221 cases in the second year and 295 in the third year. The survey showed that the residents had a very positive response to having the fellow as a teacher and did not feel like their operative experience was compromised with the addition of the ACS fellowship. CONCLUSION: The ACS fellow did not compromise general surgery resident experience and was regarded as an asset to the resident’s education. An ACS fellowship can be beneficial to residents and fellows. Copyright (C) 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins”
“The Oubangui is a major tributary find more of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures,

from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those BX-795 solubility dmso more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. delta C-13 of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between

-28.1% and -5.8%, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 ACY-738 solubility dmso and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin.”
“Background. Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are among the most common causes of respiratory tract infections in children. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HPIV type 4. Methods. A retrospective chart review and comparison of patients positive for HPIV types 1-4 by multiplex polymerase chain reaction between 2009 and 2012 at Children’s Hospital Colorado was performed. Patients who had only direct fluorescent antibody testing performed or concurrent viral infections were excluded. Results. Of 11 533 samples, 752 (6.5%) were positive for HPIV.

Phys 309, 133 (2005)] Regression analyses indicate that hybrid

Phys. 309, 133 (2005)]. Regression analyses indicate that hybrid functionals (B3LYP, O3LYP,

and PBE0) rank among the best ones with a slope of typically 0.5, i.e., 100% overestimation AL3818 inhibitor with a standard error of about 50 cm(-1). The efficiency of the highly ranked functionals for predicting the correct “exact states” (after diagonalization of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian) is validated, and a statistical standard error is assigned for each functional. The singular value decomposition approach is used for treating the overdetermination of the system of equations when the number of magnetic centers is greater than 3. Further discussions particularly about the fortuitous success of the Becke00-x-only functional for treating hydrogenic models are presented.”
“Background Although influenza virus usually involves the upper respiratory https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2157299.html tract, pneumonia was seen more frequently with the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 than with seasonal influenza.\n\nMethods From September 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, a specialized clinic for patients (aged >= 15 years) with ILI was operated in Korea University Guro Hospital. RT-PCR assay was performed to diagnose 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1. A retrospective case-case-control study was performed to determine the predictive factors for influenza pneumonia and to discriminate concomitant/secondary bacterial pneumonia from primary

influenza pneumonia during the 2009-2010 pandemic.\n\nResults During the study period, the proportions of fatal cases and pneumonia development were 0.12% and 1.59%, respectively. Patients with pneumonic influenza were less likely to have nasal symptoms and extra-pulmonary symptoms (myalgia, headache, and diarrhea) compared to patients with non-pneumonic influenza.

Crackle was audible in just about half of the patients with pneumonic influenza (38.5% of patients with primary influenza pneumonia and 53.3% of patients with NVP-AUY922 chemical structure concomitant/secondary bacterial pneumonia). Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase were markedly increased in patients with influenza pneumonia. Furthermore, procalcitonin (cutoff value 0 35 ng/ml, sensitivity 81.8%, and specificity 66.7%) and CRP (cutoff value 86.5 mg/IU, sensitivity 81.8%, and specificity 59.3%) were discriminative between patients with concomitant/secondary bacterial pneumonia and patients with primary influenza pneumonia.\n\nConclusions Considering the subtle manifestations of 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia in the early stage, high clinical suspicion is required to detect this condition. Both procalcitonin and CRP would be helpful to differentiate primary influenza pneumonia from concomitant/secondary bacterial pneumonia.”
“BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a life-threatening condition for which thrombolytic therapy may be beneficial.

Results: Impulsivity was associated with NEO-PI-R and MCMI-III tr

Results: Impulsivity was associated with NEO-PI-R and MCMI-III traits characterized by emotional distress, interpersonal problems, and disruptive behavior, whereas inattention was associated only with focus-oriented

constructs. Conclusion: ADHD-related inattention is a relatively modest predictor of personality traits, as compared with hyperactivity-impulsivity. These findings have implications regarding the distinctiveness and etiology CCI-779 mouse of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) ADHD types.”
“Dental trauma is very frequent in clinical legal medicine practice and, even if it usually has a low severity it often posses difficult problems for the legal medicine specialist. It is the case of evaluating the severity of the injuries in order to asses the judicial implications. In 2002 we have published a grading methodology for evaluating the severity of trauma lesions in oro-maxillo-facial, OMF, pathology. However, due to recent PR-171 supplier advances in the field this grading methodology is in need for an update, especially regarding dental lesions, which is the purpose of this article. This update will be useful for both medical-legal and for dental physicians, which will have an updated tool to quantify the severity of OMF lesions. The article analyses the number of medical care days for dental dislocation, fractures and dental implants. Additionally authors

presents some clinical legal medicine issues when evaluating the dental implants.”
“The influence of EDM and surface defects on the fatigue behavior of both conventional cold-rolled coarse grain (CG) and nanocrystalline (NC) Ni was investigated in the present work. The experimental results revealed considerable influence by EDM on the fatigue strength of NC Ni, while it has little or no effect on that for CG Ni. Specifically, EDM led to a 50-75% reduction in fatigue strength for NC Ni despite a relatively small depth of EDM affected material (similar to 1% of width). Rationale for this effect can be attributed to grain growth, pre-existing microcracks, and the presence of sulfur at the grain

boundaries in the EDM affected zone. In addition, buy HSP990 the pre-existing surface defects that appear to be due to impurity segregation near the electro-deposition substrate significantly reduced the fatigue resistance of ED NC Ni. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) for detecting antibodies to rabies virus was developed, using colloidal gold particles labeled with rabies virus glycoprotein as the tracer. The assay was evaluated using sera from dogs immunized with various commercial rabies vaccines, or from dogs in the clinics and sera from dogs immunized with vaccines against pathogens other than rabies virus, and negative sera from a wide variety of animal sources, including dogs, mice, and cats which had never been vaccinated.

Temperature-adjustments are feasible in viscoelastic point-of-car

Temperature-adjustments are feasible in viscoelastic point-of-care tests such as thrombelastography

and thromboelastometry which may permit quantification of hypothermia-induced coagulopathy. Rewarming hypothermic bleeding patients is highly recommended because buy Vorinostat it improves patient outcome. Despite the absence of high-quality evidence, calcium supplementation is clinical routine in bleeding management. Buffer administration may not reverse acidosis-induced coagulopathy but may be essential for the efficacy of coagulation factor concentrates such as recombinant activated factor VII.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the growth and development of human beings. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNA could change their production or affinity with target genes, thus leading to malignant diseases. This case-control study conducted in Western China aimed to explore the relationship between polymorphisms in miR-146a (rs2910164 G > C) and miR-499 (rs3746444 T > C) and primary liver cancers

in the Chinese population. 186 primary liver cancer cases and 483 healthy controls selleck kinase inhibitor were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. No significant differences were observed between distributions of the two SNPs and susceptibility of primary

liver cancer or diverse clinicopathologic features. However, we found that patients with genotype CG of the SNP in miR-146a tended to have earlier onset and better liver function than patients with genotype CC (average age: 49.9 vs. 54.9, p = Vactosertib research buy 0.038; average Child-Pugh grade: 5.55 vs. 6.15, p = 0.021), and further analysis showed that patients who had at least one G allele were diagnosed at an earlier age (average age: 49.6 vs. 54.9, p = 0.022) and had better liver function (average Child-Pugh grade: 5.60 vs. 6.15, p = 0.026). Our data suggested lack of association between the two SNPs and primary liver cancer risk, though, interestingly, the miR-146a SNP may influence the age of onset and Child-Pugh grade.”
“Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by histone deposition onto and eviction from nucleosomes, which are mediated by several chromatin-modulating factors. Among them, histone chaperones are key factors that facilitate nucleosome assembly. Acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) belongs to the ANP32 family, which shares N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and a C-terminal variable anionic region. The C-terminal region functions as an inhibitor of histone acetylation, but the functional roles of the LRR domain in chromatin regulation have remained elusive.

Severity of functional ankle instability was measured by the Cumb

Severity of functional ankle instability was measured by the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Unstable ankles were compared with stable ankles. Injured ankles were compared with uninjured ankles of both groups. The spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was applied to determine the relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability in unstable ankles. Results: There was a moderate relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability (r= -0.64, p smaller than 0.0001). Unstable ankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity (p smaller MK-0518 purchase than 0.005) and more severe functional ankle instability (p smaller

than 0.0001) than stable ankles. Injured ankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity and more severe functional ankle instability than uninjured ankles (p smaller than 0.0001). Conclusions: There was a moderate relationship between ankle viscosity and

severity of functional ankle instability. This finding suggested that, severity of functional ankle instability may be partially attributed to mechanical insufficiencies such as the degenerative changes in ankle viscosity following the inversion ankle sprain. In clinical application, measurement of ankle viscosity could be a useful tool to evaluate severity of chronic ankle instability. (C) 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to both hereditary and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) has not yet been thoroughly investigated in MENA. Methods. To establish ACY-738 chemical structure the knowledge about BRCA1 mutations and their correlation with the clinical aspect in diagnosed cases of HBOC in MENA populations. A systematic review of studies examining BRCA1 in BC women in Cyprus, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia was conducted. Results. Thirteen relevant references were identified, including ten studies which performed DNA sequencing of all BRCA1 exons. For the latter, 31 mutations were detected in 57 of the 547 patients ascertained. Familial history of

A-1210477 BC was present in 388 (71%) patients, of whom 50 were mutation carriers. c.798_799delTT was identified in 11 North African families, accounting for 22% of total identified BRCA1 mutations, suggesting a founder allele. A broad spectrum of other mutations including c.68_69delAG, c.181T bigger than G, c.5095C bigger than T, and c.5266dupC, as well as sequence of unclassified variants and polymorphisms, was also detected. Conclusion. The knowledge of genetic structure of BRCA1 in MENA should contribute to the assessment of the necessity of preventive programs for mutation carriers and clinical management. The high prevalence of BC and the presence of frequent mutations of the BRCA1 gene emphasize the need for improving screening programs and individual testing/counseling.”
“Little is known about the epidemiology of stress (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy (SC).

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“To study the p

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To study the prevalence, structure and risk factors of emotional burn-out in narcologists, 90 AR-13324 price practitioners in the field of narcology were studied. Emotional burn-out syndrome was found in 37,7% of narcologists. The stage of resistance characterized by the lowered interest in professional duties, sparing of emotions and feeling of being tired from

interpersonal contacts was observed most frequently. Emotions were totally removed from the professional activity at the stage of exhaustion. The emotional burn-out syndrome was most prevalent within the first 10 years of professional activity. The personality factors increasing the risk of burn-out were increased impulsiveness, lowered control of motivations and incentives, increased rigidity, inertness of mental processes, inability to exclude the traumatic experiences. The ability to plan the problem solving process and act in a logic and consistent way decreased the risk of the burn-out syndrome while the increased self-control produced the increased level of anxiety and contributed

to the burn-out syndrome.”
“Extracellular matrices are arranged with a specific geometry based on tissue type and mechanical stimulus. For blood vessels 4SC-202 mw in the body, preferential alignment of fibers is in the direction of repetitive force. Electrospinning is a controllable process which can result in fiber alignment and

randomization depending on the parameters utilized. In this study, arterial grafts composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), polydioxanone (PDO) and silk fibroin in blends of 100: 0 and 50: 50 for both PCL: silk and PDO: silk were investigated to determine if fibers could be controllably aligned using a mandrel rotational speed ranging from 500 to 8000 revolutions per minute (RPM). Results revealed that large-and small-diameter mandrels produced different degrees of fiber alignment VX-689 inhibitor based on a fast Fourier transform of scanning electron microscope images. Uniaxial tensile testing further demonstrated scaffold anisotropy through changes in peak stress, modulus and strain at break at mandrel rotational speeds of 500 and 8000 RPM, causing peak stress and modulus for PCL to increase 5- and 4.5-fold, respectively, as rotational speed increased. Additional mechanical testing was performed on grafts using dynamic compliance, burst strength and longitudinal strength displaying that grafts electrospun at higher rotational rates produced stiffer conduits which had lower compliance and higher burst strength compared to the lower mandrel rotational rate. Scaffold properties were found to depend on several parameters in the electrospinning process: mandrel rotational rate, polymer type, and mandrel size. Vascular scaffold design under anisotropic conditions provided interesting insights and warrants further investigation.

08, 3 31)] Conclusion: The results of this review show that M

08, 3.31)].\n\nConclusion: The results of this review show that MPDT did not decrease the risk of PB and/or LBW; however, the influence of specific aspects that were not investigated (disease diagnosis, extension and severity and the success of MPDT) should be evaluated by future RCTs.”
“AIM: To investigate differences in tolerability and response to treatment in compensated see more cirrhotic patients affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection before and after liver transplantation.\n\nMETHODS: Forty-three HCV non-liver transplanted (LT) cirrhotics (mean age 55 +/- 8 years, 65.1% male, Child-Pugh- A, genotype 1-4: 65.1%, 2-3: 34.9%) and 17 LT recipients with recurrent HCV-related cirrhosis (mean age 57 +/- 9 years, 88.2% male, Child-Pugh-A,

genotype 1-4: 76.5%, 2-3: 23.5%) were included in the analysis from retrospective series. All patients received recombinant or pegylated interferon plus ribavirin at a standard dose and duration. Adverse events were recorded and classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. The mean duration of follow-up was of 4.3 +/- 1.8 years after the end of the

treatment.\n\nRESULTS: An early virological response (EVR) was achieved in 30/43 (69.8%) non-LT and in 8/17 (47.1%) LT cirrhotics, a sustained virological response (SVR) in 18/43 (41.9%) and 5/17 (29.4 %), respectively. No statistical difference was observed in EVR and SVR rates between the two groups. Among HCV non-LT cirrhotics, 6/43 (13.9%) discontinued the treatment prematurely, 11.6% of them receiving <= 80% of treatment; 8/17 (47%) LT cirrhotics withdrew the treatment, 35.2% of them receiving <= 80% Small molecule library of treatment. If compared with LT-ones (P = 0.015), an higher risk of treatment discontinuation could affect LT cirrhotics, who

LDN-193189 supplier undergo more frequently <= 80% of treatment (P = 0.05). None of the non-LT cirrhotics died after the end of the treatment. With no regards to the achievement of SVR, LT cirrhotic patients showed a reduced survival in respect to non-LT ones (87% at 1 year, 76% at 3 and 5 years after the end of treatment).\n\nCONCLUSION: HCV antiviral treatment is equally effective in compensated cirrhotics both before and after LT, which patients show a higher risk of premature treatment withdrawal and a reduced survival, independently of the achievement of SVR. (C) 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.”
“The resistance of HIV strains to the available antiretroviral medication has become a major problem in the world today. This has forced researchers to investigate the possible use of alternative drugs such as homeopathic medicine (e. g. immunomodulators) to enhance the immune system of patients infected with HIV. Canova is an immunomodulator of herbal origin which is known to stimulate the host defense against several pathological states through the activation of the immune system. Blood platelets play an important role in homeostasis, thrombosis and the immune response by forming platelet aggregates.

Four microbial colonies were isolated from the biofilms on the me

Four microbial colonies were isolated from the biofilms on the metal coupon surfaces on the basis of their different morphology. These were characterized as Brevibacillus parabrevis, Bacillus azotoformans, Paenibacillus lautus and Micrococcus sp. The results A-769662 in vivo of SEM micrographs showed that AISI 439 and AISI 304 grades had suffered maximum localized corrosion. MIC investigations revealed that AISI 444 steel had the best corrosion resistance among the tested materials. However from the Tafel plots it was evident that AISI 1010 had the least corrosion resistance and AISI 439 the best corrosion resistance.”
“This research describes

a new Bayesian spatiotemporal model to analyse BOLD fMRI studies. In the temporal dimension, we describe the shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) with a transfer

function model. The spatial continuity and local homogeneity of the evoked responses are modelled by a Gaussian Markov random field prior on the parameter indicating activations. The proposal constitutes an extension of the spatiotemporal model presented in a previous approach [Quiros, A., Montes selleckchem Diez, R. and Gamerman, D., 2010. Bayesian spatiotemporal model of fMRI data, Neuroimage, 49: 442-456], offering more flexibility in the estimation of the HRF and computational advantages in the resulting MCMC algorithm. Simulations from the model are performed in order to ascertain the performance of the sampling scheme and the ability of the posterior to estimate model parameters, as well as to check the model sensitivity to signal to noise ratio. Results are shown on synthetic data and on a real data set from a block-design fMRI experiment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All LY2835219 research buy rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of dalfampridine.\n\nDATA SOURCES: A search of PubMed (1966-March 2012) was conducted using the words dalfampridine and Ampyra. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were reviewed to identify additional references.\n\nSTUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All identified studies published in English involving the efficacy and safety

of dalfampridine were reviewed.\n\nDATA SYNTHESIS: Dalfampridine (Ampyra) is a broad-spectrum potassium channel blocker that is indicated as a treatment to improve walking in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Dalfampridine is the only medication approved for this indication. Efficacy has been demonstrated in 2 Phase 3 trials involving patients with MS. Dalfampridine 10 mg twice daily improved walking, as shown by a higher proportion of timed walk responders in the dalfampridine-treated group (42.9% and 35%) versus the placebo-treated group (9.3% and 8%) during the 2 studies (p < 0.001). The maximum recommended dose of dalfampridine is 10 mg twice daily; higher doses are associated with an increased risk of seizures.

A chi-square ratio statistic (CSRS) was previously

A chi-square ratio statistic (CSRS) was previously Selonsertib proposed for equivalence testing of CI profiles. However, it was reported that the CSRS could not consistently discriminate between equivalent and inequivalent CI profiles. The objective of the overall project

was to develop a robust and sensitive methodology for assessing equivalence of APSD profiles of T and R OIDPs. We propose here a modified version of the CSRS (mCSRS) and evaluated systematically its behavior when T and R CI profiles were identical. Different scenarios comprising CI profiles with different number of deposition sites and shapes were generated by Monte-Carlo simulation. For each scenario, the mCSRS was applied to 20,000 independent sets of 30 T and 30 R CI profiles that were identical. Different metrics (including mean and median) of the distribution of 900 mCSRSs (30 T x 30 R) were then evaluated for their suitability as a test statistic (i.e., independent of the number of sites and shape of the CI profile)

for APSD equivalence testing. The median of the distribution of 900 mCSRSs (MmCSRS) was one regardless of the number of sites and shape of the CI profile. Hence, the MmCSRS is a robust metric for CI profile equivalence AZD8931 testing when T and R CI profiles are identical and potentially useful for APSD equivalence testing.”
“Background. Malignant triton tumors are rare neoplasias consisting of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with additional rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. These tumors are highly

aggressive and prognosis is poor. Our aim is to describe the outcome and to identify potential prognostic factors,\n\nMethods. From 1993 to 2005, 7 patients with a malignant triton tumor of the head and neck were treated at our institution. A literature search revealed another 46 published cases. All these cases were analyzed for outcome and prognostic factors.\n\nResults. Patients with primary tumors involving the nose and paranasal sinuses have better, patients involving the neck a poor prognosis. All other locations show an intermediate course. Complete surgical removal is of crucial importance. Additional radiation or chemotherapy show little effect.\n\nConclusion. Location of the primary tumor is a key factor for prognosis. Complete surgical removal is the only treatment associated with survival. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head click here Neck 31: 679-688, 2009″
“Headache remains a frequently encountered neurological symptom in Emergency department. Secondary causes of headache outnumber the primary entities such as migraine. Most of the secondary headaches have benign etiologies. The goal of emergent evaluation is to detect those with serious or life threatening causes. Identifying the pattern of headache helps in narrowing down the possible etiological diagnosis. A single episode of acute headache usually results from an acute infection ranging from viral URI to acute meningitis.