However, a large multicentre study from the United Kingdom and Ir

However, a large multicentre study from the United Kingdom and Ireland found no increased risk of abnormalities in infants exposed to efavirenz in the first trimester

[23], so replacement of this drug is not the major incentive for consulting an expert. Tofacitinib price It is of greater importance to make the woman understand how to avoid transmission of HIV to her partner, to inform her about the option of fertility treatment, and to minimize the risk of MTCT by ensuring optimal ART treatment of the woman. Our study describes the management and outcomes of pregnancies in women whose HIV status was known during pregnancy, at the time of delivery or shortly afterwards. Among these women, MTCT of HIV only occurred in one child since 2000 and no woman treated according to the national guidelines transmitted HIV to her child. However, each year during the study period one to two children born in Denmark were diagnosed with HIV infection after the neonatal period. Their

mothers were not tested for HIV during pregnancy despite belonging to high-risk groups. In other Scandinavian countries, HIV screening is recommended for all pregnant women during the first trimester [24–26], and in Italy HIV testing is in addition provided for all women RAD001 clinical trial at a preconception visit and in the third trimester [12]. From January 2010, routine antenatal HIV testing will be implemented in Denmark and, although some women may seroconvert during pregnancy and some will refuse to take the test, this is expected to further reduce the MTCT of HIV in Denmark. The authors would like

to thank Maria Birkvad Rasmussen, Johannes Boyen Rasmussen and Louise Lawson-Smith for providing us with supplemental data from the medical records. This study was supported by the A. P. Møller Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Science (grant support to NW). “
“Low-dose stavudine therapy may have a lower toxicity profile compared with standard dose. A randomized controlled trial comparing these two doses of stavudine with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF) was performed to assess the effects on anthropometry, markers of inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism in Black South African patients. Sixty patients were randomized 1:1:1 to either Histone demethylase standard-dose (30–40 mg) or low-dose (20–30 mg) stavudine or tenofovir DF (300 mg), each combined with lamivudine and efavirenz, for 48 weeks. Anthropometry, markers of inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed using standard techniques. In all three treatment arms, there was a significant increase in lipid levels over the study period. At 48 weeks, fasting glucose level (P < 0.005) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score (P < 0.05) increased significantly in the standard-dose stavudine arm, as did insulin and C-peptide levels in both the standard- and low-dose stavudine arms. At week 48, a significant decrease (P < 0.

In the cerebellum, we observed a decrease in proteins associated

In the cerebellum, we observed a decrease in proteins associated with myelination, but were unable to detect any morphological abnormalities in compact myelin formation in PGC1a mutants compared with wild-type mice. Although PGC1a is involved in lipid biosynthesis, we concluded that altered lipid composition in the PGC1a mutant did not directly affect central nervous system myelin morphology. “
“Although the novel satiety peptide nesfatin-1 has been shown to regulate gastric motility, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. The study aimed to explore the effects of nesfatin-1 on ghrelin-responsive gastric distension (GD) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc),

and potential Ferroptosis inhibitor drugs regulation mechanisms of gastric motility by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Single-unit discharges in the Arc were recorded extracellularly, and gastric motility in conscious rats was monitored during the administration of nesfatin-1 to the Arc or electrical stimulation of the PVN. Retrograde tracing and fluo-immunohistochemistry staining were used to determine

NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neuronal projections. Nesfatin-1 inhibited most of the ghrelin-responsive GD-excitatory neurons, but excited ghrelin-responsive GD-inhibitory neurons in the Arc. Gastric motility was significantly reduced by nesfatin-1 administration to the Arc in a dose-dependent ADP ribosylation factor manner. The firing activity in the Arc and changes to gastric motility were partly reduced by SHU9119, an antagonist of melanocortin 3/4 receptors. Electrical stimulation of PVN excited most of the ghrelin-responsive GD neurons in the Arc and promoted gastric motility. Nonetheless, pretreatment with an anti-NUCB2/nesfatin-1 antibody in the Arc further increased the firing

rate of most of the ghrelin-responsive GD-excitatory neurons and decreased the ghrelin-responsive GD-inhibitory neurons following electrical stimulation of the PVN. Gastric motility was enhanced by pretreatment with an anti-NUCB2/nesfatin-1 antibody in the Arc following PVN stimulation. Furthermore, NUCB2/nesfatin-1/fluorogold double-labeled neurons were detected in the PVN. These results suggest that nesfatin-1 could serve as an inhibitory factor in the Arc to regulate gastric motility via the melanocortin pathway. The PVN could be involved in the regulation of the Arc in gastric activity. “
“A number of physiological studies suggest that feature-selective adaptation is relevant to the pre-processing for auditory streaming, the perceptual separation of overlapping sound sources. Most of these studies are focused on spectral differences between streams, which are considered most important for streaming. However, spatial cues also support streaming, alone or in combination with spectral cues, but physiological studies of spatial cues for streaming remain scarce.

[4] Studies illustrated

in Table 3 (section 33)[7,25,52]

[4] Studies illustrated

in Table 3 (section 3.3)[7,25,52] provide some examples of pharmacy-based sessional services; however, there is no formal establishment of such employment models across rural areas of Queensland. Further research into the sessional model for PARP activation pharmacists, including a remuneration pathway, is warranted as an option to enhance medication services with the existing rural pharmacy workforce. Enhancement of pharmacy support staff (pharmacy assistants and technicians) capacity and roles in medication supply and delivery systems may enable the available pharmacists to provide extended services such as medication management or clinical services, both in hospital and community settings.[22,28,43,60,64] The Regulation allows pharmacy staff some involvement in the provision of non-prescription medications (S2 and S3 medications), assembling/labelling

medications, data entry and daily stock control, under the direction and personal supervision of a pharmacist.[5,21,60] This requirement for supervision is the limiting factor in the utilisation of pharmacy support staff in rural areas, although a recent change in the Regulation, allowing ‘supervision’ via technology, such as video-conferencing,[5] warrants investigation. Other limiting factors include lack of a career pathway, liability issues and variations in workplace roles and training.[22] In certain countries, for example New Zealand, the USA and the UK, there are formalised frameworks and legislation BAY 80-6946 in place to allow pharmacy technicians to be more actively involved in the entire dispensing process under the authorisation of the supervising pharmacist.[22,65] Similar extended roles should be

explored in Australia, specifically in areas lacking pharmacists or with limited pharmacy workforce capacity, which would also require amendment of legislation, standardised training procedures and development of professional standards. This review drew on roles and practice initiatives in rural areas to improve the provision of medication Glycogen branching enzyme services along the medication pathway (Figure 1). The review focused on the legal framework and medication provisions of Commonwealth (national) and Queensland (state). The review also identified the value of pharmacists and potential pharmacy-mediated support systems to further enhance QUM in rural communities. The strength of this review lies in the review of both published literature identified through databases and unpublished (grey) literature identified through other online sources. The combination ensured a comprehensive review of the topics amidst the lack of research in provision of medication services in rural areas.

g to seeing $5 as opposed to 10 cents), but also reflects someth

g. to seeing $5 as opposed to 10 cents), but also reflects something about action. We started out defining an ‘urge’ as ‘how much someone wants something’. Based on the current paradigms

at least, the concept of urge could be refined to ‘how much someone wants something when action is required to get it’. In respect of the need for action, our findings are at selleck odds with those of (Kapogiannis et al., 2008), who identified an effect of reward on the motor cortex using paired-pulse TMS in a paradigm in which the participants did not make any response. However, with the task used in their study, they could not identify whether the effect was determined by the size of the reward or the probability of receiving it (in that check details study the effect related to a strong reduction in uncertainty when observing whether a reward materialized over a specific time interval). We suspect that the changing reward probabilities drove the observed effect and, therefore, having an action was not critical in their paradigm. Here, in our money paradigm, the task was set up to measure the strength of the urge, manipulated solely by the size of the monetary reward ($5 or $0.1), while keeping the probability of seeing $5 or $0.1 on any trial exactly the same. In these experiments, the MEPs likely reflect multiple contributing factors,

including not only the urge (determined by the value of the stimulus), but also action preparation. Hence, we caution the reader that comparing MEPs (raw or normalized) across different experiments might be misleading. It is only the relative difference between MEPs observed for different levels of urge (within an experiment, when all other factors are controlled) that can be reliably interpreted. Even a comparison of MEPs between baseline and non-baseline trials within

the same experiment is difficult to interpret because the probability of seeing a baseline trial was lower than the probability of seeing a non-baseline trial in all three experiments and, therefore, differences in the probabilities could confound such a comparison. We used baseline trials only for normalizing the MEPs within each participant (to reduce variance between participants). Thus, we have shown that the strength of an urge can be indexed via ‘spill over’ into motor system excitability, at one time-point and not another, and only when a response is needed Fossariinae for satisfying the urge. Moreover, unlike prior studies, we have separated the preparation to make a response from response execution itself. Further, by recording motor excitability before the participant knew which response to prepare, we also show that the effect on motor excitability is not purely one of motor preparation but must also reflect a motivational component. Further, by manipulating the response-requirement in the money task, we show that the effect is also not purely related to general brain arousal but must also include an action-relevant component.

2 cases per 1000 patient-years, 95% CI: 08–19) than in the pre-

2 cases per 1000 patient-years, 95% CI: 0.8–1.9) than in the pre-HAART era (3.0 cases per 1000 patient-years, 95% CI: 2.1–4.0; p < 0.001), and overall survival is longer (median survival 32 days, range 5–315 days vs. 48 days, range 15–1136 days; log rank p = 0.03) [4]. Patients rarely present with B symptoms such as fever, weight loss, or night sweats that are commonly associated with other forms of NHL. PCNSL typically

presents with a focal mass lesion in more than 50% of cases. In 248 immunocompetent patients, 43% had neuropsychiatric signs, 33% had increased intracranial pressure, 14% had seizures, and 4% had ocular symptoms at the time of presentation [3]. The presentation of PCNSL in people living with HIV may be with subacute focal neurological signs [4]. Examination includes full medical, neurological and neuropsychological assessment. Investigations including serum LDH, selleck screening library CSF analysis only when lumbar puncture can be safely performed, radiology (MRI brain, CT CAP), will help to support the diagnosis of PCNSL. Stereotactic brain biopsy is the only confirmatory test and this may be guided by gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan. The presence of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in tumour cells is a universal SB431542 order feature of HIV-associated PCNSL but is not found in other PCNSLs [5,6]. In patients with HIV, computed tomography (CT) scans of PCNSL may show ring enhancement in as many

as half the cases, whilst in immunocompetent patients with PCNSL the enhancement is almost Chlormezanone always homogeneous [7,8]. Most commonly, PCNSL presents as diffuse and multifocal supratentorial brain masses. As a peculiarity of PCNSL, involvement of the vitreous, retina and optic nerves may be found in about 10–15% of patients at presentation [9]. Lymphomatous infiltration of the leptomeninges or ependymal surfaces and radicular or plexus invasion may occur as well [10]. By systemic staging, occult systemic lymphoma may be detected in up to

8% of patients initially presenting with brain lymphoma. Therefore, bone marrow biopsy, CT scan of chest and abdomen, testicular ultrasound and careful physical examination to detect occult systemic lymphoma is recommended [11]. The diagnostic algorithm for the management of cerebral mass lesions in HIV-seropositive patients includes a 2-week trial of antitoxoplasmosis therapy (sulfadiazine 1 g four times a day, pyrimethamine 75 mg once daily). Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive radiological procedure: the densely cellular tumour appears as single (65%) or multiple lesions on nonenhanced T1-weighted images, hyperintense tumour and oedema on T2 or FLAIR images and densely enhancing masses after administration of gadolinium. Fifty per cent or more of the lesions are in contact with the meninges, and meningeal enhancement appears in 10–20% [12]. The treatment of HIV-associated primary cerebral lymphoma is poor with median survival rarely reported at greater than 9 months.

If concomitant HAART is required it is advisable to select agents

If concomitant HAART is required it is advisable to select agents that have minimal drug interactions and to use therapeutic drug monitoring to check both itraconazole and potentially antiretroviral agents. Specialist advice, including

that from a pharmacologist with experience of these interactions, is required to effectively click here manage these cases. For moderately severe disseminated histoplasmosis [70], or for disseminated blastomycosis [66] or for disseminated coccidioidomycosis [80], amphotericin B is usually used for induction treatment for the first 2 weeks of therapy. Liposomal amphotericin B at 3 mg/kg iv for 2 weeks is the preferred induction agent for moderately severe disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-seropositive individuals, on the basis of a randomized clinical trial which demonstrated less infusion-related toxicity and nephrotoxicity and greater clinical Pictilisib success, as compared to conventional amphotericin B (category Ib recommendation) [81]. Although fewer data exist for other disseminated infections with dimorphic fungi, it is reasonable to consider liposomal amphotericin B at 3 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks followed by itraconazole (or fluconazole

for coccidioidomycosis) for other dimorphic fungi (category IV recommendation). There is no evidence that higher doses of amphotericin offer any treatment advantage. Patients unable to tolerate amphotericin may be treated with intravenous itraconazole (fluconazole for coccidioidomycosis) although azoles have been little studied in moderately severe disseminated disease (category IV Buspirone HCl recommendation). After initial induction therapy for 2 weeks, maintenance therapy for the next 10 weeks should be with itraconazole oral solution 200 mg bd po with therapeutic drug monitoring as above. After this period the maintenance dose should be 200 mg od/bd with the goal of keeping the itraconazole level >4 mg/L (category III recommendation) [79]. For CNS disease with histoplasmosis up to 5 mg/kg/day liposomal

amphotericin B for 4–6 weeks followed by fluconazole 800 mg od (due to better CNS penetration than itraconazole) for at least 1 year is recommended [69]. For coccidioidomycosis there are fewer clinical data but moderately severe disease is treated with liposomal amphotericin B 3 mg/kg/day intravenously followed by maintenance with fluconazole 400–800 mg od orally (category IV recommendation). Some experts recommend using fluconazole with amphotericin B in the induction phase [67] and fluconazole 800 mg od orally should be used in induction therapy, with or without intrathecal amphotericin B, when there is CNS disease [82]. Fluconazole levels do not need to be monitored.

Clinical outcomes were satisfactory in all 10 cases of HBV reacti

Clinical outcomes were satisfactory in all 10 cases of HBV reactivation. Hepatitis B virus reactivation was found in 15 (12.3%) patients among the 122 HBsAg-positive patients with rheumatic diseases treated with anti-TNF agents or DMARDs. “
“Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are unique populations which have reparative potential in overcoming endothelial damage and reducing cardiovascular risk. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased risk

of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial progenitor cell population in AS patients and its potential relationships with disease variables. Endothelial progenitor cells were measured in peripheral blood samples from 20 AS and 20 healthy controls by flow cytometry on the basis TSA HDAC research buy of CD34 and CD133 expression. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional ability was monitored by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Apoptosis inhibitor Functional Index (BASFI). EPCs were depleted in AS patients as compared to healthy controls (CD34+/CD133+: 0.027 ± 0.010% vs. 0.044 ± 0.011%, P < 0.001). EPC depletions were significantly associated with disease duration (r = −0.52, P = 0.01), BASDAI (r = −0.45, P = 0.04) and C-reactive protein (r = −0.5, P = 0.01). This

is the first study to demonstrate endothelial progenitor cell depletion in AS patients. EPC depletions inversely correlate with disease duration, disease activity and inflammation, suggesting the pivotal role of inflammation in depletion of EPCs. EPC would possibly also serve as a therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease in AS. “
“To provide a critical evaluation of quality and quantity regarding scientific efforts on antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) during the past 20 years. Scientometric benchmark procedures,

density-equalizing mapping and large-scale data analysis were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional Pregnenolone collaborations, and to identify the most successful countries, institutions, authors and journals concerned with AAV. The USA are the most productive supplier and have established their position as center of international cooperation with 22.5% of all publications, followed by Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Japan, respectively. The most successful international cooperation proved to be the one between the USA, Germany and the UK. A distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity was revealed, with the USA and Germany holding both the highest h-index and the highest number of total citations, but Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands leading with regards to the citation rate. Some large and productive countries such as Japan, China and Turkey show only a few international cooperations.

The internal EcoRV site present in pmtA was used for mutagenesis

The internal EcoRV site present in pmtA was used for mutagenesis. A spectinomycin-resistance cassette obtained as a SmaI fragment from pHY109 was inserted into EcoRV-digested pDBM11, resulting in pDBM12. Finally, the 4-kb XhoI–XbaI fragment from pDBM12 was ligated into SalI/XbaI-digested pK18mobsacB, resulting in plasmid pDBM14. The pDBM14 construct contains the interrupted pmtA gene flanked on both sides by 1 kb of DNA from SEMIA 6144. Plasmid pDBM14 was introduced by biparental

mating into SEMIA 6144. After mating for 2 days at 28 °C, the bacterial mix was plated on YEM medium with nalidixic acid, spectinomycin and kanamycin to select against E. coli donor cells and for SEMIA 6144 recipient cells harbouring the suicide plasmid integrated into its chromosome. Resistant SEMIA 6144 colonies were grown in liquid YEM medium for 24 h before being streaked Alpelisib out on YEM medium containing spectinomycin and 10% w/v saccharose to select for the loss of the vector backbone. Double-crossover events were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. The Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 pmtA-deficient mutant was called DBM13. To complement the mutant, the HindIII fragment of pDBM01 was cloned into the broad-host-range vector pBBR1MCS-5 that had been digested with HindIII, resulting Gefitinib in vitro in pDBM07. The lipid

compositions of SEMIA 6144 wild type, DBM13, DBM13 complemented with pDBM07 and DBM13 harbouring the vector pBBR1MCS-5 were determined after labelling with 37 kBq mL−1 [1-14C]acetate sodium salt (New England Nuclear, 2.26 GBq mmol−1) for 72 h. Lipids were extracted according to Bligh and Dyer (1959). The chloroform Ribonucleotide reductase phase was used for lipid analysis on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates and the individual lipids were quantified as described previously (Medeot et al., 2007). Bacterial cultures in YEM medium were grown for 72 h until the mid-exponential phase was reached. Cells were observed with a Zeiss microscope (Axiophot Carl Zeiss) equipped with a Canon PC1089 Powershot G6 7.1-megapixel digital camera (Canon Inc.,

Japan). Photographs were processed and sizes were determined using software axiovision 4.1 (Carl Zeiss). The protocols were adapted from those of Dèziel et al. (2001). Swim plates (YEM medium with 0.3% agar) were point-inoculated with a toothpick and incubated for 48 h at 28 °C. Swimming was assessed qualitatively by examining the circular turbid zone formed by the bacterial cells migrating away from the point of inoculation. Seeds of A. hypogaea L. cv. Blanco Manfredi M68, obtained from INTA Manfredi (Córdoba, Argentina), were surface-sterilized, grown in sand and inoculated according to Dardanelli et al. (2009). Uninoculated plants did not develop nodules. For the competition assay, surface-sterilized seedlings were coinoculated with parental strain SEMIA 6144 and DBM13 in a 1 : 1 ratio. Bacteria were reisolated from surface-sterilized nodules and identified based on the spectinomycin resistance marker.

In contrast, toxicity can

occur when an interaction leads

In contrast, toxicity can

occur when an interaction leads to increased antiretroviral concentrations or the patient receives a higher dose than the correct one. Resistance or toxicity is more likely to occur when the error is extended in time or when the error has not been resolved before the patient’s discharge. Some authors have confirmed that HAART-related errors are common in hospitalized patients and that admission of an HIV-infected patient by a physician not specialized in infectious diseases could be a risk factor for drug-related problems [4]. The aims of this study were to identify and describe HAART-related PLX3397 molecular weight errors in medication prescribed to HIV-infected patients admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital and VE-821 cell line to determine the degree of acceptance of the pharmacist’s interventions. We conducted an observational, prospective, 1-year study (between 1 January and 31 December 2007). Twice a week (on Tuesday and Thursday),

a pharmacy resident trained in HIV pharmacotherapy and supported by a staff infectious diseases pharmacist identified patients aged at least 18 years who had been admitted to the Hospital Clinic (a 750-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain) and prescribed HAART. A list was made of all inpatients who were prescribed antiretroviral drugs. Admissions made on Fridays, at weekends and on Mondays were recorded on Tuesday afternoon. Admissions made on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays were recorded on Thursday afternoon. The following data were recorded for all patients: age, gender, risk factors ID-8 for HIV infection, admitting service, serum creatinine level and liver function (serum albumin, total bilirubin, transaminases, and international normalized ratio). For those patients with an altered creatinine value (>1.2 mg/dL), the glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the Cockcroft–Gault

equation [5]. For those patients with any abnormal liver function test result, the admission report was checked to determine whether they had cirrhosis, in which case the Child–Pugh score [6,7] was also recorded. Concomitant medication was reviewed twice weekly to check for drug–drug interactions. HAART errors were classified as follows: contraindicated or not recommended drug–drug combinations, incorrect or incomplete antiretroviral regimen, omitted dose, incorrect dose (not matching the outpatient prescription), lack of dose reduction for renal or hepatic impairment and incorrect schedule [8]. In Spain, HIV-infected patients pick up their antiretroviral medication in the outpatient pharmacy unit of the hospital that they attend for care. Therefore, it was easy for us to determine the patient’s HAART regimen.

Ten copies of intact IS232A elements of the IS21 family were iden

Ten copies of intact IS232A elements of the IS21 family were identified in YBT-1520. In our YBT-1520 genome dataset, one copy of IS232A was invaded by nested IS231C (Table 3), which was the only IS element inserted by another IS. IS232 is considered to be exclusive to B. thuringiensis and could, therefore, possibly be used as a specific marker for this bacterium in former studies (Leonard et al., 1997). An overall Afatinib view of ISs content in the published B. cereus group genomes and further blast search of GenBank support the hypothesis that IS232 cannot be found even in noninsecticidal B. thuringiensis. Five IS elements were assigned to the IS3 family in YBT-1520 including six copies of ISBce14,

five copies of ISBth167, one copy of ISBce19 and two newly named ISs – ISBth8 and ISBth10 (Table 2). Four copies of ISBth8 have identical imperfect IRs and the Tpase showed the highest identity (70%) to

ISLtaq1 of Thermus aquaticus. There is a leucine zipper motif in ISBth8 as for ISLtaq1, which may show the DNA-binding ability to recognize the IRs. ISBth10 was found in six copies showing the highest amino acid sequence identity (76%) to ISBce18 of B. cereus ATCC 14579. IS3 family sequences are widely distributed in these finished B. cereus group genomes, except for B. anthracis (Table 4). Two IS elements were identified as belonging to the IS110 family without IRs in YBT-1520: ISBth166 and ISBth13 (Table 2). ISBth166 was first identified in a plasmid of B. thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis YBT-1765 (Huang et al., 2006). Clustering of eight identical copies of ISBth166 showed a 347 bp noncoding region Selleck Navitoclax upstream of the Tpase. Further blast search revealed two molecular markers of Btk, J3-350 (GenBank ID: EU016189) and J1-220 (GenBank ID: EU016191) Resveratrol (Shrinivas et al., 2008), located in the Tpase and the upstream noncoding region, respectively. This set of DNA markers was developed, which successfully identifies Btk when screened

against other Bacillus species and subspecies, in order to investigate the environmental persistence and ecological fate of Btk (Shrinivas et al., 2008). ISBth13 is a newly named IS element found in four identical copies and the Tpase shows the highest identity (42%) to ISCth7 of Clostridium thermocellum. Both ISBth166 and ISBth13 possess a DEDD catalytic tetrad rather than the classical DDE motif in their N-terminal regions that correspond to those in Piv proteins (Mahillon & Chandler, 1998; Buchner et al., 2005). Neither the ISBth166 nor the ISBth13 homolog can be found in the 18 B. cereus group genomes. Nevertheless, 13 genomes possess an IS110 family IS sharing more than 92% amino acid sequence identity to each other (Fig. S1), which was found adjacent to a resolvase upstream. These IS elements (e.g. YP_037389 in B. thuringiensis ssp. konkukian 97-27) are present in phylogenetically B. anthracis-related stains (Rasko et al., 2005) as well as in B. cereus ssp.