“In this study, the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble d


“In this study, the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug, perphenazine (PPZ) was improved by a solid dispersion technique to permit its usage in intraoral formulations. Dissolution of PPZ (4 mg)

in a small liquid volume (3 ml, pH 6.8) within one minute was set as the objective. PVP K30 and PEG 8000 were selected for carriers according to the solubility parameter approach and their 5/1, 1/5 and 1/20 mixtures with PPZ (PPZ/polymer w/w) were prepared by freeze-drying from 0.1 N HCl solutions. The dissolution rate of PPZ was improved with all drug/polymer mixture YH25448 manufacturer ratios compared to crystalline or micronized PPZ. A major dissolution rate improvement was seen with 1/5 PPZ/PEG formulation, i.e. PPZ. was dissolved completely within one minute. SAXS, DSC and XRPD measurements indicated that solid solutions of amorphous PPZ in amorphous PVP or in partly amorphous PEG were formed. DSC and FTIR studies suggested that PPZ dihydrochloride salt was formed and hydrogen bonding was occurred between PPZ and the polymers. It was concluded that molecular mixing together with salt formation promoted the dissolution of PPZ, especially in the case of the 1/5 PPZ/PEG dispersion, making it a promising candidate for use in intraoral formulations. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights AP26113 datasheet reserved.”
“The nucleolus is a nuclear organelle that coordinates rRNA transcription and

ribosome subunit biogenesis. Recent

proteomic analyses have selleck screening library shown that the nucleolus contains proteins involved in cell cycle control, DNA processing and DNA damage response and repair, in addition to the many proteins connected with ribosome subunit production. Here we study the dynamics of nucleolar protein responses in cells exposed to stress and DNA damage caused by ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in diploid human fibroblasts. We show using a combination of imaging and quantitative proteomics methods that nucleolar substructure and the nucleolar proteome undergo selective reorganization in response to UV damage. The proteomic responses to UV include alterations of functional protein complexes such as the SSU processome and exosome, and paraspeckle proteins, involving both decreases and increases in steady state protein ratios, respectively. Several nonhomologous end-joining proteins (NHEJ), such as Ku70/80, display similar fast responses to UV. In contrast, nucleolar proteomic responses to IR are both temporally and spatially distinct from those caused by UV, and more limited in terms of magnitude. With the exception of the NHEJ and paraspeckle proteins, where IR induces rapid and transient changes within 15 min of the damage, IR does not alter the ratios of most other functional nucleolar protein complexes. The rapid transient decrease of NHEJ proteins in the nucleolus indicates that it may reflect a response to DNA damage.


“Background Previous studies suggested that mechanical


“Background Previous studies suggested that mechanical

intervention during early reperfusion, or ischemia postconditioning (IPo), could protect kidneys against renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the mechanisms responsible for this protection remain unclear. This study therefore investigated the protection afforded by IPo in rat kidneys in vivo, and the roles of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels (mitoK(ATP)) and mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs), by inhibiting mitoK(ATP) with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), and by directly detecting open MPTPs using calcein-AM and CoCl(2).\n\nMethods Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operation (S), ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), IPo, ischemia reperfusion with 5-HD (I/R+5-HD), or IPo with 5-HD (IPo +5-HD) groups. Rats in each group were find more sacrificed after 6 hours of reperfusion by heart exsanguination or cervical dislocation under anesthesia. RIRI was assessed by determination of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and by examination of histologic sections. The roles of mitoK(ATP) and MPTP were investigated by analyzing fluorescence intensities of mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium, using

appropriate Sapitinib ic50 fluorescent markers. The relationship between apoptosis and RIRI was assessed by determining the apoptotic index (Al) of kidney tubular epithelial cells.\n\nResults The RIRI model was shown to be successful. Significantly higher levels of creatinine and BUN, and abnormal pathology of histologic

sections, were observed in group I/R, compared with group S. 5-HD eliminated the renoprotective effects of IPo. Mitochondrial and mitochondrial membrane potential fluorescence intensities increased, and intracellular calcium, ROS fluorescence intensities and Al decreased in group IPo, compared with group I/R. However, mitochondrial and AZD8931 mitochondrial membrane potential fluorescence intensities decreased, and intracellular calcium and ROS fluorescence intensities and Al increased in group IPo+5-HD, compared with group IPo.\n\nConclusions mitoK(ATP) and MPTPs participated in IPo-induced renoprotective mechanisms in rat kidneys subjected to RIRI, possibly through decreased renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis. Chin Med J 2011;124(14):2191-2195″
“In a continuous anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A(2)O) process treating domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures, nitritation was achieved through a combination of short aerobic actual hydraulic retention time (AHRT) and low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (0.3-0.5 mg/L). The nitrite accumulation rate was about 90% and ammonia removal efficiency was over 95%. With respect to total nitrogen removal, nitritation-denitritation at low DO levels of 0.3-0.5 mg/L was essentially equal to the complete nitrification-denitrification at DO levels of 1.5-2.5 mg/L with the addition of external carbon sources.

Both strains have genes encoding an Ni-containing urease and when

Both strains have genes encoding an Ni-containing urease and when grown on urea without Ni become Ni-N colimited. The Ni requirements of these strains also depend upon the genomic complement of genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD). WH8102, with a gene encoding only an Ni-SOD, has a novel obligate requirement for Ni, regardless of the N source. Reduced SOD activity in Ni-depleted cultures of VM8102 supports the link of this strain’s Ni requirement to Ni-SOD. The

genome of CC9311 contains a gene for a Cu/Zn-SOD in addition to a predicted pair of Ni-SODs, yet this strain cannot grow without Ni on NO3- and can grow only slowly on NH4+ without Ni, implying that the Cu/Zn-SOD cannot completely replace Ni-SOD in marine cyanobacteria. Selleckchem Crenolanib CC9311 does GSK1210151A have a greater tolerance for Ni starvation. Both strains increase their Ni uptake capabilities

and actively bioconcentrate Ni in response to decreasing extracellular and intracellular Ni. The changes in Ni uptake rates were more pronounced in WH8102 than in CC9311 and for growth on urea or nitrate than for growth on ammonia. These results, combined with an analysis of fully sequenced marine cyanobacterial genomes, suggest that the growth of many marine Synechococcus and all Prochlorococcus strains is dependent upon Ni.”
“Discussion exists whether discrete subaortic stenosis (DSS) is a congenital or acquired cardiac defect. Currently, it is regarded an “acquired” cardiac defect presumably secondary to altered flow patterns due to morphological abnormalities in the left ventricular outflow tract, as have been shown by some studies in the pediatric population. In this report,

we demonstrated a steepened aortoseptal angle in adults with DSS without previous cardiac surgery in comparison to controls. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that altered flow patterns due to a steepened aortoseptal angle are a substrate for development of DSS in adults. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The tau deposits found in neurodegenerative diseases Pinometostat are classified based on their isoforms, that is, 3-repeat (3R) tau and 4-repeat (4R) tau. These isoforms are distinguishable using the antibodies RD3 and RD4, respectively, and Gallyas (Gal) and Campbell-Switzer (CS) silver staining methods, respectively. Tau is also deposited in cerebral infarcts. To characterize the tau profile in these lesions, 21 brains from autopsied patients with cerebral infarcts were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with RD3, RD4, and the anti-paired helical filament antibody AT8 and with Gal and CS staining; all of these techniques identity Alzheimer disease-type neurofibrillary tangles. Fluorescence labeling followed by silver staining in mirror-section pairs was also used to compare the staining patterns.

20 (0 15-0 26); men, rho = 0 37 (0 30-0 44); MVPA: women, rho = 0

20 (0.15-0.26); men, rho = 0.37 (0.30-0.44); MVPA: women, rho = 0.18 (0.13-0.23); men, rho = 0.31 (0.24-0.39)]. When using non-individualised definition Pexidartinib in vivo of 1MET (3.5 mlO(2)/kg/min), MVPA was substantially overestimated (similar to 30 min/day). Revisiting occupational intensity assumptions in questionnaire estimation algorithms with occupational

group-level empirical distributions reduced median PAEE-bias in manual (25.1 kJ/kg/day vs. 29.0 kJ/kg/day, p<0.001) and heavy manual workers (64.1 vs. -4.6 kJ/kg/day, p<0.001) in an independent hold-out sample.\n\nConclusion: Relative validity of RPAQ-derived PAEE and MVPA is comparable to previous studies but underestimation of PAEE is smaller. Electronic RPAQ may be used in large-scale epidemiological studies including surveys, providing information on all domains of PA.”
“Accumulating evidence points to a causal role for advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the development of diabetic vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). To assess the reciprocal correlation between AGEs and basic fibroblast growth factor

(bFGF), the effects of AGEs on the production of bFGF by Muller cells were investigated. Muller cells were cultured from adult rabbit retinas. The AGEs were prepared with highly glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the control non-glycated BSA (BSA control) was incubated under the learn more same conditions without glucose. Cultured Muller cells were exposed to AGEs or BSA control (volume percentages were 4, 8, 16,32 and 64%) for a time course of 1, 3, 6 and 9 days in their desired medium. The expression of bFGF in Muller cells was evaluated by selleck kinase inhibitor immunocytochemistry. Quantification was performed by densitometry using computerized image analysis with dedicated software. AGEs in a volume percentage of 16 and 32% on day 1 and in a volume percentage of 16, 32 and 64% on days 3,6 and 9 increased the bFGF expression in Muller cells (P<0.05). Additionally, AGEs upregulated bFGF expression in Muller cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion,

the treatment of Muller cells with AGEs resulted in a dose- and time-dependent elevation of bFGF in the culture medium. The results from this study suggest that the increased formation of AGEs in the vitreous may be involved in the development of DR by inducing the production of bFGF by retinal Muller cells.”
“I present a theoretical study of the electronic transport properties of nickelocenylferrocene sandwiched between gold electrodes. Compared with the biferrocene system, the nickelocenylferrocene system had high electrical conduction and rectification in the bias range -1 to 1 V. Furthermore, the spin-down states of the nickelocenylferrocene system exhibited perfect spin-filtering properties. From the electronic states of the nickelocenylferrocene, it was found that the rectification was caused by a difference in the bias-dependent behaviors between the Fe 3d and Ni 3d orbitals.

87), soluble CP (R-2 = 0 92), RUP (R-2 = 0 97), and intestinal di

87), soluble CP (R-2 = 0.92), RUP (R-2 = 0.97), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R-2 = 0.71). In conclusion, molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their nutritive value.”
“Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of intraocular infections after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Methods: The study design was a single institutional retrospective

noncomparative cohort of 135 consecutive patients in 2006 and 2007 who underwent allo-SCT for hematological malignancy. The primary outcome was the development of intraocular infections after allo-SCT and secondary outcome consisted of development of other ocular disorders during follow-up. Results: The most frequent ocular sequel to allo-SCT included ocular graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), which developed in 37/135 patients LY411575 (27%). Intraocular infection occurred in 1 of 135 patients (0.7%). This patient developed infectious chorioretinitis together with osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and brain abscess

with fungus Scedosporium and was successfully treated with a combination selleck inhibitor of voriconazole, amphotericine B, and surgical interventions. Viral and/or bacterial intraocular infections were not observed at all. Conclusions: Intraocular infections after allo-SCT are currently uncommon due to systematic use of preemptive treatment regimens, frequent controls, and early treatment of systemic infections.”
“Efficient modes of extracorporeal blood purification

are available today for apheresis treatment of progessive atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, or for improving hemorheology. Advanced technology and sophisticated care render apheresis treatment selective, safe and tolerable. Our BGJ398 cost task is to constantly update indications for apheresis based on best evidence available and good clinical practice, as well as, to determine how apheresis therapy can be made available to those in need or with otherwise refractory disease.\n\nPresenting examples of lipid apheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a), acute hearing loss, refractory or exacerbating multiple sclerosis, we highlight real world obstacles for implementation of treatment, resulting in still too many patients with proven or recommended indication left untreated. Based on the experience of the largest apheresis center in Germany, with more than 3,300 treatments per year, we depict the necessary structure for identification of patients, defining indication, referral, implementation of therapy, and reimbursement. Apheresis is unfamiliar to most patients and many practitioners or consultants.

Low consequence gamblers had higher levels of parental monitoring

Low consequence gamblers had higher levels of parental monitoring. Individuals in the high consequence group had higher scores

on the risk, and lower scores on the promotive, factor index and Risk x Promotive Factor Index scores predicted gambling group CBL0137 membership. These findings support a risk-protective model of resilience and indicate that promotive factors buffer against high consequence gambling in the context of risk.”
“Background: Portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) allow easy glucose measurements. As animal-specific PBGMs are not available everywhere, those for humans are widely used. Objectives: To assess the accuracy and precision of 9 PBGMs in canine whole blood (WB) and plasma, based on the ISO 15197: 2013. Animals: Fifty-nine client-owned dogs attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Methods: Analytical evaluation of 100 blood samples was performed for accuracy and 23 for precision (glucose 29-579 mg/dL) following ISO recommendations. A PBGM was considered accurate if 95% of the measurements were within +/- 15 mg/dL from the reference when glucose was smaller than 100 mg/dL and within +/- 15% when it was bigger than = 100 mg/dL, and if 99% GS-7977 in vivo of them were within zones A and B in error grid analysis (EG). A hexokinase-based analyzer was used as reference.

Ninety samples were assessed for hematocrit interferences. Results: Accuracy requirements were not fulfilled by any PBGM in WB (74% of measurements within the limits for the most accurate) and by 1 only in plasma. However, the EG analysis in WB was passed by 6 PBGM and by all in plasma. The most accurate were also the most precise, with coefficients of variation smaller than 5% in WB and smaller than 3% in plasma. Hematocrit correlated with bias against the reference method in 4 PBGM (r = -0.243 – [-0.371]; P smaller than .021). Conclusions SRT1720 mw and Clinical Importance: This disparity among PBGM suggests that meters approved for humans need to be evaluated before use in other species.”
“TR-644

is a novel combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) analogue endowed with potent microtubule depolymerizing activity superior to that of the lead compound and it also has high affinity to colchicines binding site of tubulin. We tested TR-644 anti-angiogenic effects in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). It showed no significant effects on the growth of HUVEC cells at concentrations below 1,000 nM, but at much lower concentrations (10-100 nM) it induced inhibition of capillary tube formation, inhibition of endothelial cell migration and affected endothelial cell morphology as demonstrated by the disruption of the microtubule network. TR-644 also increased permeability of HUVEC cells in a time dependent manner. The molecular mechanism for the anti-vascular activity of TR-644 was investigated in detail.

In vivo bioluminescent imaging, western blotting and immunohistoc

In vivo bioluminescent imaging, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was used to confirm that NS3/4A protein was strictly expressed in the liver of Doxycycline-induced triple transgenic mice. The results show that we established a triple-transgenic mouse model conditionally expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein under strict control of the Tet-On regulatory system and Cre/loxP system. This novel transgenic mouse model expressing NS3/4A in a temporally and spatially-specific Nepicastat manner will be useful for studying interactions between HCV NS3/4A protein and the host, also for evaluating NS3/4A protease inhibitors.”
“OBJECTIVE: Colloid cysts of the third ventricle

have been successfully treated with transcranial microsurgical approaches. However, the endoscopic approach has recently find more been advocated as a lesser invasive technique. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to compare the outcomes between the two approaches. METHODS: A PubMED search of contemporary literature (1990-2014) was performed to identify surgical series of open and endoscopic treatment of colloid cysts. Relevant articles were identified and data were extracted concerning surgical treatment, extent of resection, and outcomes. RESULTS: A

meta-analysis was performed for recurrence rates based on treatment strategy. A total of 583 patients were included in the microsurgical group, and 695 patients in the endoscopic group. The microsurgical approach was found to have a significantly higher gross total resection rate (96.8% vs. 58.2%; P smaller than 0.0001), lower recurrence rate (1.48% vs. 3.91%; P = 0.0003), and lower reoperation rate (0.38% vs. 3.0%; P = 0.0006) compared with the endoscopic group. There was no significant difference in mortality rate (1.4% vs. 0.6%) or shunt dependency (6.2% vs. 3.9%) between the two groups. The overall morbidity rate was lower in the endoscopic group (10.5%) than in the microsurgery group (16.3%). Within the microsurgery group, the transcallosal

BMS345541 approach had a lower overall morbidity rate (14.4%) than the transcortical approach (24.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical resection of colloid cysts is associated with a higher rate of complete resection, lower rate of recurrence, and fewer reoperations than with endoscopic removal. However, the rate of morbidity is higher with microsurgery than with endoscopy.”
“Background: Patients with gastric cancer (GC) have a poor survival and biologicals such as Trastuzumab have not been used routinely in these patients. Existing data on HER2 expression and its clinical relevance in GC are still limited and controversial.\n\nMethods: HER2 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 418 GC from Germany and 506 GC from England.

7-12 1, P < 01), respectively These results indicate that th

7-12.1, P < .01), respectively. These results indicate that the HCT-CI score predicts NRM and OS in pediatric patients undergoing HCT and is a useful tool to assess risk, guide MK-2206 inhibitor counseling in the pre-transplantation setting, and devise innovative therapies

for the highest risk groups. (Blood. 2011; 117(9): 2728-2734)”
“Background: Sturge-Weber syndrome is a congenital neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial port-wine stain, leptomeningeal angioma, and neurological disorders. Sturge-Weber syndrome can coexist with other disorders in a few patients; however, muscular abnormalities have not been reported in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome.\n\nCase presentation: A Chinese girl presented with extensive port-wine stains, congenital bilateral glaucoma, and leptomeningeal angiomatosis. The neurocutaneous symptoms were consistent with the diagnostic criteria of BAY 80-6946 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor Sturge-Weber syndrome. Meanwhile, episodes of rhabdomyolysis were supported by the recurrent symptoms as follows: exercise intolerance, hyperCKmia,

elevated serum myoglobin, and renal failure. Myopathological features and high level of blood long-chain acyl-carnitine indicated that episodes of rhabdomyolysis might be caused by lipid metabolic myopathy. Causative mutations were not ASP2215 found in the CPT2, ACADVL, and GNAQ gene.\n\nConclusions: We report the first case that Sturge-Weber syndrome coexists with episodes of rhabdomyolysis associated with lipid metabolic myopathy.”
“Purpose: To evaluate

the gonial angle (GA) and associated factors that can contribute to stability after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy setback and Le Fort I advancement osteotomy for the treatment of patients with mandibular excess.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This retrospective study included 42 randomly selected, adult patients. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained before and 1 week and 1 year after surgery. Patients in group 1 (n = 18) had a GA smaller than 125 degrees and those in group 2 (n = 24) had a GA larger than 125 degrees. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify factors that influenced postsurgical stability.\n\nResults: Mean surgical changes were similar in the 2 groups. The mandible was set back an average of 5.4 mm in group 1 and 6.4 mm in group 2, whereas the maxilla was advanced 2.5 mm in group 1 and 1.7 mm in group 2. Statistically significant postoperative changes were noted for group 1 only.

The “pure”

The “pure” PLX4032 cell line stretching levels are calculated up to 11 000 cm(-1) from the stretching zero point energy. The calculated rovibronic energies are compared with previous theoretical and experimental

data. The mean agreement with the zero kinetic energy photoelectron measurements of Tang [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 133201 (2006)] is of 16.7 cm(-1). The Renner-Teller parameters have been determined at nu(trans)=690.0 cm(-1), epsilon(trans)=0.30, nu(cis)=715.0 cm(-1), and epsilon(cis)=-0.063. A detailed analysis of the rovibronic Hund’s cases is presented and the rotational structures of some vibronic bands recorded by Yang and Mo [J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11001 (2006)] are given.”
“We studied the behavioural response of European starlings to a socially mediated predation event. Adult starlings were exposed to either a video of a flock attacked by a peregrine falcon or a video of a flock not under attack. We investigated whether the social condition affected the anti-predator response under the hypothesis that in such a gregarious species singletons would increase their anti-predator behaviour more than individuals in groups, to

compensate for potential increased risk. The video of the flock under attack caused an increase in immobility and vigilance, more marked in singletons, both during and after the exposure. The see more video of the non-threatened flock caused an increase in activity levels, especially during the exposure. Furthermore, we observed a marked increase in comfort activities in singletons as well as in social interactions and vocalizations in mini-flocks. Only birds in mini-flocks vocalized, which may be explained by an audience effect, a process of social cognition mediated by the social context, and not only by the stimulus. The results are in line with previous field studies, which showed that isolated starlings are exposed to a higher risk of predation compared to individuals in flocks. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a cost-effective and rapid

method for identifying Mycoplasma pneumoniae Buparlisib molecular weight (MP). We investigated the utility of the LAMP assay in diagnosing MP pneumonia among children in a clinical setting. In this prospective study, the cause of community-acquired pneumonia was evaluated in 111 patients for whom MP was the suspected pathogen. All participants were patients at a city hospital in Japan between April 201 2 and September 2012. Throat swabs for the LAMP assay were obtained at admission, and paired serum samples to measure antibody titres to MP by particle agglutination were obtained at admission and during convalescence. Overall, 45 of 111 (41 %) patients had a fourfold or greater increase in MP titres and received a diagnosis of MP pneumonia.

The aim of this professional issues paper is to illuminate the cl

The aim of this professional issues paper is to illuminate the clinical and research communities with regards click here to the growing body of knowledge for determining the trajectory of a patient with whiplash. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nager syndrome belongs to the group of acrofacial dysostosis, which are characterized by the association of craniofacial and limb malformations. Recently, exome sequencing studies identified the SF3B4 gene as the cause of this condition in most patients. SF3B4 encodes a highly conserved protein implicated in mRNA splicing and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. We performed SF3B4 sequencing in 14 families (18 patients)

whose features were suggestive of Nager syndrome and found nine

mutations predicted to result in loss-of-function. SF3B4 is the major gene responsible for autosomal dominant Nager syndrome. All mutations reported predict null alleles, therefore precluding genotype-phenotype correlations. Most mutation-negative patients were phenotypically ZD1839 indistinguishable from patients with mutations, suggesting genetic heterogeneity.”
“In this study we describe the de novo assembled head kidney transcriptome of the Antarctic notothenioid fish Trematomus bernacchii, an important model species for biochemical, environmental and immunological studies. RNA-seq data was generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing, obtaining similar to 7 Gbp of sequence data, which were assembled into 96,641 contigs and annotated with the Trinotate pipeline. Since this sequence collection is expected to contain a relevant number of immunity-related transcripts, it will

be used as a reference for future immunological studies in this species. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.”
“Background find more aims. For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Methods. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 +/- 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Results.