The increase in the activity of the upward rotators of the scapul

The increase in the activity of the upward rotators of the scapula between 60° and 90° of shoulder flexion is similar to the gradual increase in activity of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscles during arm abduction (Bagg and Forrest, 1986). In that study, the lower trapezius remained relatively inactive until the arm was abducted 90°. The lower trapezius increased its activity – and therefore its contribution to the upward rotation force couple – as the arm was elevated beyond 90°. With increasing abduction, the instantaneous centre of rotation of the scapula moved toward the acromioclavicular joint from the root of the spine of

the scapula, lengthening the Cisplatin concentration moment arm of the lower trapezius muscle (Bagg and Forrest, 1988). Similarly, in the current study of flexion, the moment arm of the lower trapezius lengthens as the amount of shoulder flexion increases. This is likely to be responsible the significant increase in activity of the lower trapezius at 90° flexion (especially maintaining the isometric contraction) compared to at 60° flexion. This finding is consistent with the results of other studies investigating muscle activity in the scapular upward rotator muscles during arm elevation (Antony and Keir, 2010, Ebaugh et al 2005, Jarvholm et al 1991, Mathiassen and Winkel, 1990). Muscle activity in the upper trapezius increased significantly when the participants maintained 60°

of shoulder flexion while simultaneously reducing scapular winging using real-time visual feedback. Sahrmann (2002) stated that an increase in upper trapezius activation is needed INCB024360 mw to compensate for the weakened serratus anterior muscle. Thus the upper trapezius may be supporting the increased activity in the serratus anterior, which was significantly greater at both the 60° and 90° angles when visual feedback was provided. The

marker displacement in the frontal plane indicated that scapular elevation increased significantly at the 60° shoulder flexion angle when visual feedback was provided. This may also be the result of the activity of the upper trapezius at the 60° angle. Anterior movement of the acromion in the sagittal plane was significantly greater at both shoulder flexion Bumetanide angles when visual feedback was provided, which is consistent with the increased activity of serratus anterior. These findings indicate that visual feedback helped the participants activate appropriate musculature during shoulder flexion to control scapular winging. A number of exercises to strengthen serratus anterior have been described in the literature (Decker et al 1999, Ekstrom et al 2003, Hardwick et al 2006, Ludewig et al 2004). These exercises should be performed with scapular protraction to activate the serratus anterior muscle while stabilising the thoracic wall, and they should be carried out with no scapular winging.

, 1991, Krishnan et al , 1992, Drevets et al , 1992 and Mayberg e

, 1991, Krishnan et al., 1992, Drevets et al., 1992 and Mayberg et al., 2000). Deep brain stimulation procedures targeting the NAc and its efferent connections in the VTA have shown good therapeutic efficacy in treatment resistant depression (T. Schlaepfer, personal communication). However, it is currently unknown how these stimulation protocols affect NAc microcircuitry and whether they indirectly stimulate fibers of passages that synapse outside

the NAc. Numerous epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms in mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry underlie antidepressant action and resilient behavioral responses to chronic stress. The transcription factor ΔFosB is upregulated in the NAc of resilient mice following CSDS in a serum response factor (SRF) dependent manner, and genetic overexpression or antagonism NVP-AUY922 solubility dmso of ΔFosB expression promotes behavioral resilience or susceptibility,

respectively (Vialou et al., 2010a and Vialou et al., 2010b). Furthermore, ΔFosB levels are reduced in postmortem NAc samples of human depressed patients. Chronic fluoxetine treatment enhances ΔFosB concentration in the mouse NAc, and ΔFosB is required for fluoxetine-mediated antidepressant effects in susceptible mice. ΔFosB exerts its pro-resiliency effects through its transcriptional targets, including AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluA2 and Sparc-like 1 (SC1). Following selleck kinase inhibitor CSDS, resilient mice show greater NAc expression of GluA2 than do control or susceptible mice, an effect mediated by ΔFosB binding to the GluA2 promoter. ΔFosB-mediated enhanced GluA2 expression DNA ligase promotes resilience by decreasing AMPA function—GluA2-containing

AMPA receptors are Ca2+ impermeable with lower receptor conductance and reduced inwardly rectifying currents. In addition, SC1, a protein localized to the PSD and necessary for proper synapse assembly, is upregulated both in mice overexpressing ΔFosB and in mice resilient to CSDS. SC1 overexpression reverses social avoidance behavior following CSDS. Epigenetic regulation of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) has been shown by our laboratory to mediate susceptibility vs. resilience to CSDS (Golden et al., 2013). Rac1 is a Rho GTPase involved in the organization and maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton, largely through regulation of its downstream target cofilin, an actin severing protein critically involved in synaptic plasticity. Following CSDS, Rac1 was downregulated in the NAc of susceptible, but not resilient, mice, and its expression correlated with social avoidance behavior. Viral-mediated overexpression and knockdown experiments demonstrated that Rac1 is necessary and sufficient for the expression of resilient behavior following CSDS.

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only US F

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) approved treatment, focuses on recanalization to reduce the size of ischemic damage.11 and 12 So far, numerous attempts have been made to find the best among the various therapeutic interventions such as ischemic preconditioning, controlled reperfusion and antioxidant, complement or neutrophil therapy.13 Therefore, it is still essential to search for new class of neuroprotective strategies which may perhaps significantly prevent or limit I/R injury in humans. Currently both experimental and epidemiological

evidences demonstrate that 2,4,6-trisubstituted-1,3,5-pyrimidines have received much attention of researchers because selleck kinase inhibitor of their cerebroprotective actions.14, 15, 16 and 17 Hence in the present investigation it was proposed worthwhile to study the possible inherent mechanisms behind their cerebroprotection by targeting oxidation and inflammation pathways in global ischemia-reperfusion induced cerebral infarction in rats. Thiopentone sodium, 2,3,4-tetrazolium chloride, Thiobarbituric acid, 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxy-propane,

nitroblue tetrazolium, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form, 2,4,6-trisubstituted-1,3,5-pyrimidines (AUCP1 and AUCP2) were procured from Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research Laboratories, Afatinib Andhra University as gift samples (Fig. 1). All experimental protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University vide proposal no: (Approval No. 516/01/A/CPCSEA) under the regulation of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), SB-3CT New Delhi. Adult Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g of either sex were used which were obtained from National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Animals were housed in groups of 6–7 in colony cages at an ambient temperature of 25 ± 2 °C and 45–55% relative humidity with 12 h light/dark cycle. They had free access to pellet

chow (Pranav Agro Limited) and water ad libitum. As pyrimidines (AUCP1 and AUCP2) are very sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions, to solubilize these compounds, 99% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was used as vehicle and different concentrations (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) were prepared by dissolving in 50% DMSO and administered intraperitoneally 10 min before reperfusion. At the end of the experiment the brain was removed and used for quantification of infarct size using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. Cerebral infarction was induced by bilateral common carotid artery (BCA) occlusion method described by Iwasaki et al.18 Pyrimidines (AUCP1 and AUCP2) were administered by 15 days pre-treatment at doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally.

The study was conducted from January 2011 through December 2013 i

The study was conducted from January 2011 through December 2013 in ID-BG Hospital and B.C. Roy Memorial Hospital for Children in Kolkata, Eastern India. Stool samples of every fifth admitted patient (≤5 years of age) with acute watery diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain, were collected. The inclusion criteria for OPD patients included passing of three or more loose/watery stools within 24 h [23]. A total of 830 stool samples were collected from hospitalized patients and 1000 stool samples were collected from OPD patients. The consent of the guardian was obtained prior to enrolling a child. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee, National Institute of Cholera

and Enteric

Diseases. see more Preliminary screening of the stool samples for the presence of RVAs was performed using Rota-Adeno kit as per the manufacturer’s instructions (VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, Biomerieux® sa). All the rotavirus positive samples, detected by VIKIA® Rota-Adeno kit, were confirmed for positivity by reverse transcription and PCR to avoid a false positive result. RVA double-stranded Vemurafenib clinical trial RNA was extracted from feces of positive samples by using a commercially available RNA extraction kit (QIAamp viral RNA Mini Kit, Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Complementary DNA was synthesized from the extracted viral RNA through reverse transcription in the presence of random hexamers. G and P genotyping was performed using VP7- and VP4-specific multiplex semi-nested RT-PCRs as described previously [24] and [25]. PCR products were purified with a QIAquick PCR purification kit (QiagenGmbH, Hilden, Germany). Nucleotide sequencing was carried out using the ABI Prism Big Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit v3.1 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA) in an ABI Prism 3730 Genetic Analyzer (PE Applied

Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA) as described previously [26]. Nucleotide and protein sequence BLAST search was performed using the National Centre for biotechnology Information (NCBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) Basic Local Alignment Search Tool Sitaxentan (BLAST) server on GenBank database release 143.0 [27] and [28]. Pairwise sequence alignments were performed using LALIGN software (EMBnet, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatic, Switzerland), and multiple alignments were done with DDBJ software and CLUSTAL W. Amino acid sequences were deduced using the TRANSEQ software (Transeq Nucleotide to Protein Sequence Conversion Tool, EMBL-EBI, Cambridgeshire, UK). Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis) program, version 5.2. Genetic distances were calculated using maximum likelihood statistical model and Jones–Taylor–Thornton (JTT) substitution model (at 1000 bootstrap replicates).

, 2005) and results in a stronger immune response in younger vers

, 2005) and results in a stronger immune response in younger versus older adolescents (Dobson et al., 2013). There is evidence, as well, that HPV vaccine induces robust immune memory (Olsson et al., 2007) Selleck Selumetinib and that sufficient antibody levels may last for at least 12 years and perhaps much longer in most vaccinated individuals (Fraser et al., 2007). Evidence has also suggested that, if needed, an additional dose of vaccine administered years after the initial series may boost the sustained effectiveness of vaccination (Olsson et al., 2007). A communication challenge posed by HPV vaccination is that while both

vaccines are very efficacious, they do not protect against all types of HPV responsible for cervical and other anogenital cancers. This kind of complexity (high efficacy against vaccine types, but more modest efficacy when the whole range of oncogenic HPV is considered)

may be difficult to communicate in a health care setting and difficult for parents to understand. Visual aids, such as the use of charts and graphs, may help to most effectively deliver this kind of information (Chua et al., 2006). In the context of such communication, the need for sexually active females who have been vaccinated to nonetheless have periodic cervical cancer screening must remain MDV3100 cost an emphasis. Although the strong evidence for efficacy and safety of HPV vaccine dispels many concerns that have been associated with a new vaccine, it is also important to note that HPV vaccine has been licensed in the U.S. and Canada since 2006 and in Australia since 2007 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007, Garland and Smith, 2010 and National Advisory Committee on Immunization, 2012). Clinicians who are influential in vaccine uptake, therefore, should no longer consider this vaccine new. Content analysis studies about the media’s representation of the HPV vaccine demonstrate that the

tone associated with the vaccine is inconsistent, ranging from negative to neutral to positive (Briones et al., 2012, Habel et al., 2009 and Keelan et al., 2010). Unfortunately, it is often the unrealistic, negative vaccine fears that become salient to Suplatast tosilate the public, which then tends to sensationalize potential side effects of vaccination. These rumors then filter down to adolescents and become further exaggerated (Brabin et al., 2009). In order to overcome this type of misinformation, clinicians and public health officials need to advocate for more accurate vaccine information and evidence-based media coverage (Cooper et al., 2008). Further, using social media tools (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) is another key strategy to disseminate accurate information and dispel some of misinformation that is spread by the anti-vaccine movement (Betsch et al., 2012 and Keelan et al., 2010).

The study described in this manuscript was part of a larger pneum

The study described in this manuscript was part of a larger pneumonia surveillance project. The selection of enrollment centers and the sample size was based on the requirements of the pneumonia surveillance project. The EPI schedule in Pakistan included: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)

and oral polio vaccine (OPV), given at birth; diphtheria, GSK1349572 tetanus, pertussis (DTP), hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines and OPV each given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks; and measles vaccine, given at 9 months [10] and [23]. The study population was comprised of infants from families residing in the surveillance area who were (a) less than or equal to 6 months of age (b) visiting for BCG or first dose of DTP vaccine and (c) attending the designated EPI centers for the first time. Those excluded were non-residents of Lyari/Saddar town

or were planning to migrate outside the study area in the next 6 months. All parents/guardians who presented with an infant for vaccination were approached and participants were enrolled consecutively during the times specified for each cohort. Once an infant had received BCG or the first dose of DTP (DTP1), parents/guardians were introduced to the project and referred to trained project Enrollment Workers (EWs) who screened, recruited, obtained consent DNA Damage inhibitor and administered a standard questionnaire. The intervention cohort families received food/medicine coupon incentives at each follow-up immunization visit until DTP3. The coupon was worth 120 PKR, equivalent to US$ 2.00 in 2006 (minimum TCL monthly wage for unskilled laborer in 2006 was US$ 66.67 in Pakistan [24]). The parents of eligible children could use the coupons at the 6 participating stores offering groceries and medicines located in close vicinity to each EPI center. The coupons could not be exchanged for cash. The second cohort received no coupons or any other incentive. A follow-up appointment card was issued to participants

at the time of enrollment. The infants enrolled at BCG were followed up for DTP1, 2 and 3 immunizations while those enrolled at DTP1 were followed for DTP2 and 3 vaccines. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of food/medicine coupon on DTP immunization coverage at 18 weeks of age. The study was approved by the Committee on Human Research at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Institutional Review Board of Interactive Research and Development, Karachi, Pakistan. The study staff read out the informed consent form to eligible participants, encouraged and answered questions and obtained written consent for study enrollment. In the intervention phase, the questionnaires were field edited and the data were captured through TeleForm® version 6.1 (Cardiff Software, San Diego, CA), an optical character recognition software. In the control phase, the data were collected on Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).

Although more research is required to understand the effects of s

Although more research is required to understand the effects of stress on avoidance strategies, avoidant behaviors are common among anxiety patients (Eifert and Forsyth, 2007, Craske and Barlow, 1988 and Sprang and LaJoie, 2009), suggesting that stress may enhance well-practiced avoidance strategies. It should be noted that although avoiding an aversive outcome may attenuate fear responses, the habitual avoidance of fearful situations may also prevent one from confronting aversive stimuli Selleckchem Lapatinib and engaging in extinction processes, which can be detrimental to the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Therefore, while stress may hinder the initiation of avoidance behavior

during learning, overuse of avoidance

strategies may lead to habitual, potentially maladaptive avoidance behaviors that are facilitated by stress. Since the fear regulation techniques discussed above can be vulnerable AUY-922 mouse to the effects of acute stress, as well as other contextual and temporal factors, emerging research in animals and humans has examined the interference or blockade of fear memory reconsolidation as a putative alternative to change fear. Normative models of memory suggest that immediately after learning, there is window of time in which newly encoded information is susceptible to interference. However, recent research suggests that memories must undergo an additional phase of consolidation each time they are reactivated, a restabilization process referred to as reconsolidation. Since it is often not feasible to interfere with the initial consolidation Endonuclease of traumatic experiences, interfering with reconsolidation offers the possibility of altering traumatic memories in a more permanent manner. In a typical reconsolidation paradigm, after an aversive association is acquired and consolidated, a time-dependent reconsolidation window is induced by a single presentation of the CS to reactivate the aversive memory. A variety of behavioral or pharmacological manipulations

can then be used during the presumed reconsolidation window to alter memory re-storage before later testing for the conditioned responses in the presence of the CS. Research in humans (Schiller et al., 2010, Schiller et al., 2014 and Steinfurth et al., 2014; see Schiller and Phelps, 2011 for review) and animals (Nader et al., 2000, Monfils et al., 2009, Einarsson and Nader, 2012 and Hong et al., 2013) has now demonstrated that disrupting or interfering with reconsolidation leads to the persistent modification of amygdala-dependent aversive associations. Recent research in rodents suggests that interfering with the reconsolidation of aversive association induces plasticity in the LA (Monfils et al., 2009 and Clem and Huganir, 2010) and in humans, reconsolidation of fear memory leads to diminished BOLD responses in the amygdala (Agren et al.

Jerse (Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, USA)

Jerse (Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, USA); Christine Johnston (University of Washington, USA); Nicola Low (University of Bern, Switzerland); David Mabey (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK); Noni MacDonald (Dalhousie University, Canada); Fred Mhalu (Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania); André Meheus (University of Antwerpen, Belgium); Lori Newman (World Health Organization, Switzerland); Jacques Ravel (University of Maryland

School of Medicine, USA); Helen Rees, Consultation PR-171 cell line Chairperson (Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa); Anne M. Rompalo (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA); Kenneth L. Rosenthal (McMaster University, Canada);

Susan Rosenthal (Columbia Dactolisib datasheet University Medical Center, USA); Michael W. Russell (University of Buffalo, USA); Robin Shattock (Imperial College London, UK); Lawrence Stanberry (Columbia University Medical Center, USA); Yot Teerawattananon (Department of Health Ministry of Public Health, Thailand); Peter Timms (Queensland University of Technology, Australia); Daisy Vanrompay (Ghent University, Belgium); Andrea Vicari (World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization, Costa Rica); Teodora Wi (World Health Organization, Switzerland). Special thanks

to Gail Bolan, Nicola Low, Anne M. Rompalo, and Lawrence Stanberry for serving as working group chairs during the Technical Consultation, and to the authors of the papers included in this special issue of Vaccine. “
“The name herpes comes from the Greek meaning to ‘Creep and Crawl’, and centuries later Shakespeare referred to herpes as the ‘blister plague’. In the Middle Ages syphilis was treated with Mercury, leading to the expression that “a night in the arms of Venus means a lifetime spent secondly on Mercury”. In the 19th century the symptoms of gonorrhoea were treated with silver nitrate and, early in the 20th century, syphilis with arsenicals. These were replaced by antibiotics that were so powerful that it was anticipated that the fight against syphilis, as well as against chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis was finally won. In the 21st century, resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to all first line antimicrobials is now being encountered. Despite effective diagnostics and treatment, little progress is being made today in controlling chlamydial infection, and syphilis is again epidemic among men who have sex with men.

Both antigens were heat inactivated at 96 °C for 15 min and used

Both antigens were heat inactivated at 96 °C for 15 min and used at a final concentration of 10 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL respectively, as determined by previous optimization studies. Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) (Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was used as a positive control at 0.5 μg/mL. Peripheral blood mononuclear Alisertib molecular weight cells (PBMC) were isolated from whole blood by density gradient centrifugation over Lymphoprep (Nycomed Pharma, Oslo, Norway), and immediately

cultured at 2 × 106 cells/mL in supplemented RPMI culture medium (Biowhittaker, Verviers, Belgium) (complete medium) as described before [22]. We optimized a flow cytometry-based assay for the detection of Bp-specific memory T cells present in low amounts, which involves a long in vitro stimulation with the Bp-antigens FHA and PT (see Supplemental Information for detailed information). Briefly, PBMC were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE, Vybrant CFSDA-SE cell tracer kit, Invitrogen, Merelbeke, Belgium) as previously described

[27] and [28], resuspended at 2 × 106 cells/mL and cultured for 5 days in the presence of antigen. Brefeldin-A (Sigma–Aldrich, 10 μg/mL) was added for the last 4 h of incubation. Cells were then incubated for 15 min at room temperature in the presence of EDTA (2 mM), and washed with PBS. Dead cells were identified by using the Live/dead fixable Aqua dead cell stain kit (Invitrogen) and the PBMC were stained with the following anti-human monoclonal antibodies: CCR7 PE (clone FAB197P, R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK), CD45RA PE-Cy7 (clone L48) and CD4 APC-H7 (clone SK3, both from BD Biosciences, Mountain View, CA, USA). The cells were fixed and permeabilized using Lysing Solution 1 and Permeabilizing Solution 2 (BD Biosciences) according to the manufacturers’ instructions, and subsequently stained with the following anti-human monoclonal antibodies: IFN-γ APC (clone 25723.11),

CD3 V450 (clone UCHT1) (both from BD Biosciences) and TNF-α PerCP/Cy5.5 (clone MAb11, Biolegend, San Diego, CA). Cells were acquired on a FACSCanto flow cytometer (BD Biosciences), and the data Oxygenase were analyzed using the FlowJo software (Tree Star, Ashland, OR). A median of 60,000 cells was acquired (interquartile range 39,000–82,000). A subject was considered responsive when his antigen-induced response was 2 times higher than the value obtained for the unstimulated cells from the same subject and higher than the median value obtained for the unstimulated cells of all subjects. Data were analyzed using the GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows (Graphpad Software, San Diego, CA, or the IBM SPSS statistics version 19 (Chicago, IL). We used non-parametric tests to compare independent data (Mann–Whitney) and paired samples (Wilcoxon signed rank test). SPICE (Mario Roederer, Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, NIH) was used to compare the phenotypic profiles of responding cells [29].

The electropherograms obtained were analyzed using the sequencing

The electropherograms obtained were analyzed using the sequencing analysis software (Sequence Navigator, version 1.01, Applied Biosystems). The nt and deduced aa sequences were compared with sequences available in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) GenBank database using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program. Phylogenetic and molecular Dabrafenib concentration evolutionary analyses were conducted using MEGA version 4.0 [36]. Dendrograms constructed were confirmed by two different methods,

neighbor joining and maximum parsimony. The data were analyzed using Epi Info 2002 and Stata 10.0. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were performed to determine the significance of differences observed between groups. Partial nucleotide SRT1720 nmr sequences of VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, VP6, VP7, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 of the G10P[15] strains were submitted to the GenBank database and their accession numbers are HQ660637, HQ660638, HQ660639, FJ798615, FJ798616, FJ798617, HQ660640, HQ660641, HQ660642, FJ798618, HQ660643 respectively. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of the 394 children enrolled in the study was 10 (7) months, with >90% of children less than 2 years of age. The median Vesikari score of diarrheal severity was 11.0 and the children required

admission for a mean duration of 2.8 days. Of 394 children screened, we found that 158 children were infected with rotavirus (40%). The common G types identified in order of frequency were G1 (47/158, 29.7%), G2 (43/158, 27.2%), G9 (22/158, 13.9%), G10 (2/158, 1.2%), G12 (1/158, 0.6%) and mixed infections (27/158, 17.8%). The common P types were P[4] accounting for 57/158 (36%) samples, P[8] 57/158 (36%), P[11] 3/158 (1.8%) and P[6] 2/158 (1.2%). Mixed infections with varied P types were seen in 5 (3.2%). G typing alone was possible in 23 samples PAK6 (14.4%), only P typing in 5 samples (3.6%) and 11 samples were completely untypeable (6.9%). The common G:P combinations seen

in children were, G2P[4] in 39/158 (24.6%) samples, G1P[8] in 29/158 (18.3%) samples, G9P[8] in 21/158 (13.2%) samples, G1P[4] in 4/158 (2.5%) samples and G10P[11] in 1/158 sample (0.6%) (Fig. 1a). We collected total of 627 samples from animals with diarrhea, including 589 cows (25 were calves), 2 buffaloes, 11 bullocks and 25 goats (11 were kids). The mean duration of diarrhea was 4.5 days for adult animals, 4 days for calves and 3 days for goat kids. Out of 627 animals we found 35 (1 bullock, 2 goats, 32 cows) infected with rotavirus (5.5%). The common G types identified in order of frequency were G6 (17/35, 48.5%), G2 (10/35, 28%), G10 (4/35, 11%), G8 (2/35, 5.7%) and mixed infections (2/35, 5.7%).