The recombinant antigens, early secretory antigen target 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), are encoded in a region of difference (RD)1, a genomic segment absent from the BCG and most environmental mycobacteria . The advantages of using IGRA for the diagnosis of LTBI and TB disease include the need for only a single patient visit, selleck chemicals llc the speed with which results can be obtained and the high sensitivity and near perfect specificity of the diagnosis [23, 24]. The major disadvantages of the IGRA include
the need for a suitably equipped laboratory and trained people and the relatively high cost . However, IGRA has already been shown to be significantly more specific than TST Buparlisib cost for the diagnosis of LTBI and TB disease, especially in endemic countries such as Brazil . Their performance in the diagnosis of children has, nevertheless, not been extensively investigated [27, 28], and there is thus a lack
of knowledge in this area. In view of this, the aim of this study was to analyse the differences between IFN-γ levels against ESAT-6, CFP-10 and PPD in vitro, in children with LTBI and TB disease and healthy donors from an area where TB is endemic, and to assess the diagnostic potential of these antigens based on these differences. The importance of applying new diagnostic approaches to detect LTBI early in children lies in the fact that it halts progression to TB disease, which causes irreversible damage to the lungs and future respiratory problems in infected children. Selection of patients and control. BCG-vaccinated Gemcitabine clinical trial children, aged between 3 and 15 years old, were selected prospectively over the period between the years
2005 and 2007 from the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco and the Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP), in Recife, in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, according to the criteria used by the ATS (American Thoracic Society) . The patients were divided into two groups: (1) children with confirmed tuberculosis (TB disease, n = 21), with an epidemiological history of contact, clinical evidence and/or a chest radiography compatible with tuberculosis and/or TST >10 mm; (2) patients with a high risk of having latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, n = 17), including children with a history of contact with an individual with tuberculosis or who have TST >10 mm. Both groups were selected prior to treatment. The negative control group (NC, n = 21) was composed of children with a non-reactive TST, with no history of contact with TB and no specific symptoms of tuberculosis. This group was selected from the IMIP cardiology unit. Demographic and clinical data were obtained for each child using a detailed questionnaire. These data included date of birth, TB exposure history, BCG vaccination status (vaccination certificate and/or the presence of the typical scar) and symptoms suggestive of TB.