Other loci, for example SubSSR16 or SubSSR33,
showed a severe deficit of heterozygotes. With the present data, it was impossible to determine whether these results were due to sampling bias or were intrinsic to these loci. Therefore, we recommend using caution when considering these loci for future studies. Through the estimated genetic parameters, this study also confirmed the existence of a genetic heterogeneity AZD0530 molecular weight within A. subrufescens species, as already suggested by Kerrigan (2005) using ITS sequences. The genetic diversity of an extended sample of A. subrufescens strains collected from various geographical origins was analyzed in our laboratory. The availability of the highly valuable molecular tools such as the SubSSR markers, together with increasing wild genetic
resources, offer new opportunities for genetic selleck kinase inhibitor improvement of this gourmet and medicinal mushroom (Largeteau et al., 2011). Cross-species amplifications were carried out for a subset of 24 SubSSR loci on 10 strains belonging to various congeneric species. Since no species-specific PCR optimization was attempted, the cross-priming ability reported here was likely underestimated. Nineteen loci (79%) were also amplifiable in at least one other species (Table S3). Six SubSSR primer pairs (25%) (SubSSR36, SubSSR50, SubSSR51, SubSSR66, SubSSR80, SubSSR91) showed PCR fragment in half or more of the species (Table S3). Most loci that were amplified in other taxa did so within the expected size range; for some of them, specific allele sizes were not represented in A. subrufescens strains (data
not shown). Further experiments on additional strains of each species are needed to assess polymorphism at these transferable loci. Erastin cell line The percentage of SubSSR markers that were successfully amplified (Table 2) is consistent with the degree of phylogenetic relatedness previously described for these species (Zhao et al., 2011, 2012). Thus, the more closely related the species was to A. subrufescens, the higher the percentage of SubSSR markers that gave successful amplification. Only one locus (SubSSR50) amplified A. bisporus DNA. Reciprocally, microsatellite primers from A. bisporus (Foulongne-Oriol et al., 2009) did not amplify A. subrufescens DNA (data not shown). Our results supported the poor, but not null, transferability of the microsatellite markers across species in fungi (Dutech et al., 2007). As previously reported, this level of transferability was in agreement with phylogenetic relatedness (Njambere et al., 2010). We have demonstrated the feasibility of SSR-enriched pyrosequencing technology to develop microsatellite markers in a non-model fungal species. This is one of the first times that such an approach has been used in macro fungi. The strategy used in the present study to obtain operational microsatellite markers from the pool of candidate loci could be applied readily to other fungi.