CONCLUSIONS: The EFVR, a simple index that is less time-consuming than the CE, allows the identification of patients with aortic bioprosthesis stenosis with excellent sensitivity and specificity. It may be taken into
consideration PLX4032 order in clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with aortic bioprosthesis stenosis and left ventricular dysfunction.”
“P>Neurological insults are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, both in adults and especially in children. Among possible therapeutic strategies to limit clinical cerebral damage and improve outcomes, hypothermia remains a promising and beneficial approach. However, its advantages are still debated after decades of use. Studies in adults have generated conflicting results, whereas in children recent data even suggest that hypothermia may be detrimental. Is it because brain temperature physiology is not well understood and/or not applied properly, that hypothermia fails to convince clinicians SYN-117 of its potential benefits? Or is it because hypothermia is not, as believed, the optimal strategy to improve outcome in patients affected with an acute neurological insult? This review article should help to explain the fundamental physiological principles of brain heat production, distribution and elimination under normal conditions and discuss why hypothermia cannot yet be recommended routinely in the management of children affected with various neurological insults.”
heart disease (CHD) with systemic-to-pulmonary shunting is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). There are similar clinical Fedratinib datasheet and pathophysiological features between CHD with shunt-associated PAH and idiopathic PAH. Endothelin-receptor antagonists (ERAs) are oral medications that improve pulmonary hemodynamics, symptoms and functional capacity in many PAH patients. However, the role of ERAs in CHD with shunt-associated PAH is unclear.METHODS:
MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched for articles published from 1966 through September 2006, as well as bibliographies of all retrieved papers.
All published English-language studies of adult CHD patients with shunt-associated PAH treated with ERAs were reviewed for clinical, functional and hemodynamic outcomes.RESULTS:
Ten studies of 174 adult CHD subjects with shunt-associated PAH were identified. Other than one placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, all studies were open-label, uncontrolled observational trials. Subjects were treated with the ERA bosentan for a mean (+/- SD) of 9 +/- 7 months. Nine studies reported improved World Health Organization (WHO) modification of the New York Heart Association functional class, with 95 of 164 subjects (58 %) improving by at least one functional class. The 6 min walk distance improved in all eight studies in which it was assessed. Bosentan was generally well tolerated; 2.