VJ wrote the first version of the manuscript

JM provided

VJ wrote the first version of the manuscript.

JM provided statistical support for the design of the study and performed the statistical analyses. TC supervised the laboratory analytical procedures and validated the laboratory results. TC, HS, SA and RV set up and carried out the qPCRs. SP and LH participated in the design and clinical coordination of the study. All authors contributed to the editing, and approved the final paper.”
“Background Iron and zinc are recognized as important micronutrients for bacteria, but excess of iron can catalyze the Fenton reactions, resulting in formation of toxic hydroxyl radicals [1]. Similarly, an excess check details of zinc ions can also trigger the formation of hydroxyl radicals selleck inhibitor [2]. Besides hydroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical and H2O2 are inevitably generated as 4SC-202 in vivo byproducts of aerobic metabolism in bacteria [3]. Additionally, during infection, ROS can be generated

by the innate immune system[4]. ROS can cause damage to many macromolecules including DNA, proteins and lipids [5, 6]. It is clear that oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are closely related. However, bacteria have evolved efficient mechanisms to maintain metal ion homeostasis and protect themselves from oxidative damage [7]. Fur family proteins are present widely in bacteria and play crucial roles in cellular processes. This family contains more than six different proteins. They are the sensors of iron (Fur and Irr) [8][9], zinc (Zur) [10], manganese [11] and nickel (Nur) [12], and the peroxide Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulon repressor (PerR) [13]. In the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, there are two Fur family proteins Fur and Zur. In contrast, there are three Fur-like proteins (Fur, Zur and PerR) in many Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis Clostridium acetobutylicum and Staphylococcus aureus. In B. subtilis, Fur regulates iron uptake and siderophore biosynthesis; Zur regulates two ABC zinc transporters; and PerR regulates the oxidative stress response [13, 14]. Streptococcus suis is economically a very important

Gram-positive and facultative anaerobic bacterium that causes severe diseases in pigs and humans. As an emerging zoonotic pathogen, S. suis serotype 2 has become the predominant causative agent of adult human meningitis in Vietnam and Hong Kong [15]. Two large outbreaks of human infections were reported in China in 1998 and 2005, resulting in 229 infections and 52 deaths [16, 17]. Like other bacterial pathogens, S. suis may also encounter both oxidative stress and metal starvation during infection. Thus, the regulation on the responses to oxidative stress and metal starvation by Fur-like proteins could be particularly important for S. suis survival in vivo and pathogenesis. However, only a single gene encoding a Fur-like protein has been found in each sequenced genome of S. suis, even in the genomes of most species of the genus Streptococcus.

gattii strains for additional assay validation Culture collection

gattii strains for additional assay validation Culture collection ID Geographic origin Sample type MLST Year of isolation B4501 Australia Human VGI unknown B4503 Australia Human VGI unknown B4504 Australia Human VGI unknown B4516 Australia Human VGI unknown B5765 India Environmental VGI unknown B9018 California Human

VGI 2011 B9019 New Mexico Human VGI 2011 B9021 Rhode Island Human VGI 2011 B9142 Georgia Human selleck VGI 2011 B9149 California Human VGI 2011 B8508 selleckchem Oregon Human VGIIa 2009 B8512 Oregon Alpaca VGIIa 2009 B8558 Washington Human VGIIa 2010 B8561 Washington Human VGIIa 2010 B8563 Washington Human VGIIa 2010 B8567 Washington Dog VGIIa 2010 B8854 Washington Human VGIIa 2010 B8889 Oregon Environmental VGIIa 2010 B9077 Washington

Environmental VGIIa 2011 B9296 British Columbia Environmental VGIIa 2011 B8211 Oregon CH5183284 mouse Human VGIIb 2009 B8966 Oregon Horse VGIIb 2010 B9076 Washington Environmental VGIIb 2011 B9157 Washington Horse VGIIb 2011 B9170 Washington Porpoise VGIIb 2011 B9234 Washington Cat VGIIb 2011 B9290 British Columbia Cat VGIIb 2011 B9241 Oregon Human VGIIb 2011 B9428 Washington Cat VGIIb 2012 B9159 Washington Sheep VGIIc 2011 B9227

Oregon Cat VGIIc 2011 B9235 Oregon Human VGIIc 2011 B9244 Oregon Human VGIIc 2011 B9245 Oregon Human VGIIc 2011 B9295 British Columbia Environmental VGIIc 2011 B9302 Oregon Environmental VGIIc 2011 B9374 Oregon Human VGIIc 2011 B8965 New Mexico Human VGIII 2010 B9148 California Human VGIII 2011 B9151 Michigan Human VGIII 2011 B9163 New Mexico Human VGIII 2011 B9237 New Mexico Cat VGIII 2011 B9372 Morin Hydrate California Cow VGIII 2011 B9422 Oregon Cat VGIII 2012 B9430 Alaska Cat VGIII 2012 B7238 Botswana Human VGIV 2005 B7240 Botswana Human VGIV 2005 B7243 Botswana Human VGIV 2005 B7247 Botswana Human VGIV 2005 B7249 Botswana Human VGIV 2005 B7260 Botswana Human VGIV 2006 B7262 Botswana Human VGIV 2006 B7263 Botswana Human VGIV 2006 B7264 Botswana Human VGIV 2006 B7265 Botswana Human VGIV 2006 Isolate culturing and DNA extraction Isolates were grown on Yeast Peptone Glucose (YPD) agar plus 0.5% NaCl at 37°C for 24 hours; and DNA was prepared using an UltraClean DNA Isolation Kit as described by the manufacturer, with some modifications (MO BIO Laboratories, Carlsbad, CA). Briefly, ~0.

The authors conduct a thorough literature review and present the

The authors conduct a thorough literature review and present the results of 38 expert interviews to make AICAR in vivo recommendations and to propose quality criteria for the development

of cross-sectoral and multi-scale approaches; the development of coherent norms and assessment tools; and, for the improvement of information and to expand the knowledge base. Finally, Birkmann and von Teichman show how CCA concepts can be incorporated concretely into the various phases of the disaster cycle. Rural farmers are very well aware that variations in climate directly affect their livelihoods; but Birkmann and co-authors PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 price remind us that it is in the cities of the world—many of them located in low-lying coastal areas with informal settlements—that we find constraints to adaptation. Yet the consideration of CCA strategies in urban areas lags far behind the actions that are taking place or being envisaged in rural areas. This is so despite the fact that urban centres are where populations and critical infrastructure are concentrated, and that they play major economic roles at the national level. The authors appraise the CCA strategies of nine cities worldwide and combine this approach with more empirical research in two cities in Vietnam where they derive key questions for a more in-depth analysis. The need to link adaptation strategies over time and space are again visible

selleck kinase inhibitor in the detailed analyses of Ho Chi Min and Can Tho cities. The paper builds on the knowledge presented by Birkmann and von Teichman and provides new directions for adaptive urban governance. More than extreme weather events, sea-level rise is the largest concern for small island nations in the decades to come. This threat was the impetus for a collective negotiating strategy at COP 15 in Copenhagen in December by small island developing states for adaptation assistance. McLeod and co-authors used the dynamic interactive vulnerability assessment (DIVA) model to estimate the effects of sea level-rise in the countries of the Coral Triangle, and to assess the expected coastal changes in

terms of impacts on ecological, social and economic systems. Results show significant, if inconsistent, impacts. Decitabine chemical structure Within the 2100 time horizon, Indonesia could see 5.9 million people affected by flooding, and the Philippines may see the highest economic impacts at US $6.5 billion per year when no adaptation initiatives are taken. The largest ecological impacts would occur in the numerous coastal wetland areas in the region. Model simulations demonstrate that consideration of adaptation measures drastically reduced the negative impacts of sea-level rise. The authors provide useful suggestions to improve the reliability of modelling in the future, thus meeting some of the concerns highlighted by Romieu and co-authors in the first paper.

campestris pv campestris [39, 40] However, these enzymes in Xan

campestris pv. campestris [39, 40]. However, these enzymes in Xanthomonas are mono-functional,

i.e., involved either in EPS or LPS production. Our data showed that the gpsX gene is involved in both EPS and LPS production (Figure 3). The low similarities between GpsX and these proteins (data not shown) may suggest the differences buy SAHA in substrates and products. Bacterial polysaccharides are usually synthesized from intracellular nucleotide sugar precursors and, most bacterial polysaccharides contain polymerized saccharide repeating units, the assembly of which involves glycosyltransferases that sequentially link monosaccharide moieties from nucleotide sugars to the growing sugar chain (saccharide acceptors) [11]. Different classes of bacterial polysaccharides can be distinguished on basis of their biosynthesis mechanisms and the precursors required. However, it is worth mentioning that, in some instances, mutation of single genes simultaneously affected biosynthesis of different polysaccharides, similar with the observation in this work. For example, in X. campestris pv. citrumelo, the mutation in opsX, a homologue of waaF (rfaF) which codes for a heptosyltransferase for LPS synthesis Sapanisertib mouse in E. coli, affected biosynthesis of LPS and EPS [41]. In addition, mutants in

xanA and xanB, involved in UDP-Glucose and GDP-Mannose biosynthesis in X. campestris pv. campestris, respectively, showed a decrease in EPS production Protirelin and an altered LPS [42]. Mutants in galE, encoding a UDP-galactose epimerase in Erwinia amylovora, were deficient in EPS production and produced a LPS with an altered side chain structure [43]. The dual effect of certain genes on EPS and LPS may be due to the shared pathways for EPS and LPS synthesis in these bacteria. As discovered in Salmonella, the same precursor molecule, UDP-glucose, is used for LPS O-antigen polysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide [44]. The major EPS produced by xanthomonads, xanthan, composed of polymerized pentasaccharide

repeating units, consisting of glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid [39]. Most recently, glucose and mannose were found to be components of LPS in X. citri subsp. citri [45]. Given the altered O-antigen containing LPS profile of the gpsX mutant and its decreased level of EPS production, it was likely that the gpsX-encoded glycosyltransferase was involved in the formation of saccharide repeating units that might be found in X. citri subsp. citri EPS and LPS, by transferring the glucose and/or mannose monosaccharide moiety from certain nucleotide sugar precursors to Alvocidib molecular weight corresponding acceptors. However, biochemical evidence for this proposed function of GpsX is needed. Interestingly, the gpsX gene is located outside of the LPS gene cluster even though it is involved in the O-antigen biosynthesis. The LPS cluster is responsible for synthesis of O-antigen polysaccharide.