, 2005) Therefore, even though our study was stopped early

, 2005). Therefore, even though our study was stopped early selleck chem inhibitor and not definitive, our findings suggest that with the doses explored, the dosing regimen provided and in the smoking population studied, gabapentin has little clinical utility for the treatment of tobacco dependence. Funding The project described was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA; DA 021583). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIDA or the National Institutes of Health. Declaration of Interests None to declare. Supplementary Material [Article Summary] Click here to view. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the participants in this study and the staff of the Nicotine Research Program.

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the development and marketing of potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), the most recent of which include a number of noncombustible products that provide tobacco in a spitless pouch (such as snus) or lozenge (such as Ariva or Stonewall; Hickman et al., 2004). Many researchers and public health officials question the overall population impact of PREPs (for reviews, see Hatsukami, Benowitz, Rennard, Oncken, & Hecht, 2006; Hatsukami et al., 2008; Pederson & Nelson, 2007). Whether PREPs are a viable or an unacceptable form of tobacco control is not yet known and is of crucial public health significance. Depending on how PREPs are used in the real world, they could either promote or undermine public health (Warner, 2005). On the one hand, smokers may view these products as an alternative to cessation.

This hypothesis is not without parallel, as most evidence has shown that switching to low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes undermined cessation (Hughes, 2001; Shiffman, Pillitteri, Burton, Rohay, & Gitchell, 2001a, 2001b). Whether the history of low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes serves as proxy for PREPs is unclear, but there is sufficient cause for concern given the comparable marketing strategies between these products (Hamilton et al., 2004). PREPs could also deter quitting if they are used to circumvent smoking restrictions, and many noncombustible products are marketed with this appeal. Smoking restrictions increase quitting (Farkas, Gilpin, Distefan, & Pierce, 1999; Norman, Ribisl, Howard-Pitney, Howard, & Unger, 2000), and using a PREP to avoid the necessity of going outside or to avoid the experience of withdrawal could maintain nicotine dependence and undermine the beneficial effect of restrictions.

On the other hand, PREPs could promote ultimate cessation if smokers view these products as a step toward quitting. In a population-based sample of more than 450 current smokers, 35% said they AV-951 would use a cigarette-like PREP device to reduce the risks of smoking, and 28% said they would use it to help them quit (Shiffman, Jarvis, et al., 2007).

Reflux esophagitis with hypotonic LES was demonstrated with 24-ho

Reflux esophagitis with hypotonic LES was demonstrated with 24-hours esophageal pH-manometry. Bortezomib structure The patient was then scheduled for excision of the intramural gastric tumor and laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Figure 1 Ultrasound appearance of iuxta-cardial gastrict GIST. Through an Hasson trocar inserted in the epigastric area and other two 5-mm trocars positioned in the subcostal regions, the mobilization of the esophago-gastric junction was accomplished. Then, two 5-mm radially expandable trocars were inserted through the abdominal and gastric walls and a 5 mm 30�� scope was introduced into the gastric lumen. Through insufflations of the gastric cavity, an endoscopic polipectomy snare introduced per mouth, was maneuvered by an endoscopist who grasped and tractioned the gastric iuxta-cardial lesion (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Position of the two 5-mm expandable trocars and exposure of the dissection plane through the traction of the GIST with the endoscopic grasping. An harmonic scalpel device inserted through the other 5 mm laparoscopic trocar was used to remove the gastric tumor with a sub-mucosal resection. The resection of the lesion was accomplished thanks to the traction made by the endoscopist through the polipectomy snare which allowed an excellent exposure of the site of dissection. This laparoscopic-endoscopic rendez-vous technique made possible a complete resection of the submucosal GIST, which otherwise could have been more challenging and with intraoperative risks of complications (such as perforation), considering the iuxta-cardial location of the tumor.

The specimen was then pulled away from the mouth after its introduction in a small plastic bag. After withdrawal of the expandable trocars and closure of the gastric holes with monofilament non-absorbable sutures, an antireflux floppy Nissen-Rossetti procedure was performed. Performing a ��floppy�� Nissen allowed us not to use a dilator to calibrate the wrap, which could have led to a threatening risk of perforation of the iuxta-cardial region, in the site of the previous surgical dissection. The naso- gastric tube was left in place. Post-operative phase was uneventful. The patient passed gas in day one p.o. and started feeding in the same day, after gastrografin X-ray examination and removal of the nasogastric tube. He was discharged from the hospital in day 4 p.o.

In a 5 years follow-up with clinical observation, endoscopic and CT scan examinations performed every six months for two years and then yearly, neither complaints nor disease recurrence were observed. Pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of gastric GIST. The tumor was limited to the submucosa and the resection margins were disease-free. GSK-3 Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the CD117 positivity. Discussion The incidence of GISTs is estimated to be 1,5-2 cases per 100.

1F) Two patients who had aortic valve repair for papillary fibro

1F). Two patients who had aortic valve repair for papillary fibroelastoma have been reoperated after 67 and 51 www.selleckchem.com/products/nutlin-3a.html months respectively because of development of severe aortic regurgitation due to failure of previous valve repair. One patient who had a mitral valve repair due to papillary fibroelastoma of anterior mitral chords has been re-operated after 112 months because of severe mitral regurgitation. Ten patients died during the follow-up period (11%), 3 because of car accident, 4 because of extra-cardiac neoplasm, 1 because of myocardial infarction after 46 months from the operation and two for respiratory infection. Twenty-four patients had at least an episode of detected atrial fibrillation during the follow-up period (19 myxomas, 4 fibroelastoma, 1 angiomyolipoma) after a mean-time from the operation of 18��34months.

Thirteen of these patients (54.2%) had atrial fibrillation as presentation symptom of neoplasm. Nine of these 24 patients (37.5%) have developed chronic atrial fibrillation treated with anti-arrhythmic drugs and anticoagulant therapy. Four of these patients (16.7%) underwent associated procedure (1 bentall, 2 mitral valve repair, 1 ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation). No embolic complications have been documented. After one-year follow-up the patient with HMCM is asymptomatic and in good clinical condition, without increase of the residual tumor diameter. The patient with leiomyosarcoma died 9 months after the operation. The patient with fibrosarcoma died 26 months after the operation. The patients with angiosarcoma died after 5 and 7 months respectively.

Discussion and conclusions In 1559 was certified for the first time the existence of cardiac neoplasm (3). A classification system of primary cardiac tumors similar to what we use today has been introduced by Yater in 1931 (4), the first ante-mortem diagnosis was made by Barnes in 1934 (5). The first surgical excision was performed by Bahnson and Newman in 1952. In 1954 Crafoord removed an atrial myxoma by using extracorporeal circulation (6). Nowadays in a high volume cardiac surgery department primary cardiac tumors are an uncommon but not rare entities. Between January 1990 to May 2010 we performed in our department 22093 cardiac operations, 91 of these were for primary cardiac tumors, representing the 0.4% of all operations. Autopsy studies reported a prevalence of primary cardiac tumors ranging from 0.

001 to 0.3% (1). It has been estimated that surgery for cardiac tumors represent about 0.3% of all open-heart procedures (7,8). In details during the first decade of our experience we diagnosed 22 primary cardiac tumors representing 0.2% (22/9189 operations) of total surgical activity. In the meantime in the second decade of our experience we diagnosed Cilengitide 69 primary cardiac tumors representing the 0.5% (69/12904 operations) of total surgical activity.

09, 95% CI = 0 01�C0 79); policy implementation was unrelated to

09, 95% CI = 0.01�C0.79); policy implementation was unrelated to participant smoking status, selleck quantity of units owned/managed, HUD status, or building construction type and size. Among respondents who reported having no smoking restrictions in their buildings, those who manage and/or own units subsidized through HUD were significantly more likely to report an interest in implementing a smoke-free policy (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.14�C8.52); policy interest was unrelated to participant smoking status, quantity of units owned/managed, or buildings age, construction type, and size (Table 1). Table 1.

Predictors of smoke-free policy interest among owners and managers of multiunit housing in which smoking is currently permitted, binary logistic regression, n = 110 Barriers and motivators of smoke-free policy implementation Among owners and managers with no smoking restrictions in their buildings, primary reported barriers to smoke-free policy implementation included concerns over higher vacancy rates, a decrease in the market size of potential tenants, and the federal, state, or local legality of such a policy. A total of 8% of respondents with no smoking restrictions indicated that they had no concerns about implementing a smoke-free policy in their buildings. The most commonly reported motivators for policy implementation among owners and managers with no smoking restrictions in their buildings were evidence of high tenant demand for smoke-free units and knowledge that the policy would reduce either insurance or tenant turnover rates (Table 2). Table 2.

Perceived barriers and motivators of smoke-free policy implementation among owners and managers of multiunit housing in which smoking is currently permitted All the 17 respondents with smoking restrictions in at least one of their buildings indicated that it was ��likely�� they would retain their smoke-free policy. Discussion The findings of this study suggest that only a limited number of managers and owners of MUH in Erie and Niagara counties have implemented smoke-free policies in their buildings, but most would be interested in doing so. Consequently, opportunities exist for interventional efforts to enhance smoke-free policy implementation and enforcement among these individuals. In order to ensure maximum efficacy, such interventions may be directed toward particular subgroups, such as operators of buildings with government-subsidized housing units.

In the present study, respondents who manage and/or own units subsidized through the HUD were significantly more likely to report an interest in implementing a smoke-free policy. This finding could be Entinostat attributed to the disproportionately higher rates of smoking (Giovino et al., 2009) and MUH residency (USCB, 2008) among individuals of lower socioeconomic status.

Response options ranged from none (1) to a lot (4; Johnston et al

Response options ranged from none (1) to a lot (4; Johnston et al., 2010). Higher scores represent more peer pressure to smoke. Parent Smoking To assess whether first adults in adolescents�� lives smoked, adolescents were asked, ��During the past 12 months, do you think your parents or someone who takes care of you has tried cigarettes?�� This question was dummy coded with yes (1) and no (0). Parent Communication About the Dangers of Using Drugs One question asked adolescents to rate the frequency with which they had talked with their parents or another caregiver in the past twelve months about the dangers of using drugs. The response options ranged from ��none (1) to many times (4), and higher scores represent more parent�Cchild communication about the dangers of youth using drugs.

Parental Monitoring Youth were asked seven questions to assess the extent to which parents monitor their children��s activities. The variables were adapted from Paterson and Capaldi (1998) and have been used by other substance use researchers (Chilcoat & Anthony, 1996). Sample questions included ��How often would your mom/dad or guardian know if you came home an hour late on weekends?�� and ��How often, before you go out, do you tell your mom/dad or guardian when you will be back?�� Response categories were all of the time (1), most times (2), sometimes (3), hardly ever (4), and never (5). After reverse scoring corresponding items, scores were added up. Higher scores represent more parental monitoring (Cronbach��s �� = .67).

Parental Control An eight-item measure was used to measure youth involvement in decision making about adolescent issues (Brody, Moore, & Glei, 1994). Adolescents were asked to indicate how decisions were made in their family in regards to a list of statements, including ��How late you can stay up on school nights,�� ��Which friends you can spend time with,�� and ��How you dress.�� The response options were My parent(s) decide (1), My parent(s) after discussing it with me (2), We decide together (3), I decide after discussing it with my parents (4), and I decide by myself (5). Scores were reverse coded and added with higher scores representing more parental control (Cronbach��s �� = .66).

School Prevention of Cigarette Smoking To measure students�� perception of school prevention of cigarette smoking, adolescents were asked the following question: ��In your present school, how vigorous are the teachers and administrators in their attempts to prevent students from smoking?�� Response options AV-951 ranged from not at all (1) to very rigorous (5), with higher scores representing more school prevention. Cigarette Ads Exposure Encouraging Cigarette Use To assess exposure to cigarette ads that encourage cigarette use, adolescents were asked to rate the frequency with which they had seen commercials on TV or heard commercials on the radio that encouraged them to buy cigarettes.

2) Finally, having controlled bleeding and checked for bile leak

2). Finally, having controlled bleeding and checked for bile leakage, two gravity drains were placed in the residual cavity (6). Fig. 2 Intra-operative most findings: a) identification of the abscess; b) cleavage by blunt dissection; c) drainage; d) rupture of the septum and lavage with bactericidal solution. Results The postoperative course was regular: the patient began passing gas on day 2 and began eating. The drains were removed on day 7 and the patient was discharged the following day, with his clinical picture and laboratory parameters having fully normalized. Follow up US exams confirmed the disappearance of the lesion. Discussion Liver abscesses were recognized as far back as Hippocrates, in 400 BC, who thought that prognosis was related to the type of fluid in the lesion.

Osler, in 1890, was the first to describe the presence of amebae in a patient��s abscess and stools, but it was only in the early 20th century that amebae were correlated to the formation of a liver abscess. The etiology varies. In addition to pyogenic bacteria and amebae, other microorganisms, such as fungi and cytomegalovirus, can also cause liver abscesses, albeit rarely, especially in immunosuppressed patients. The most common causes of pyogenic abscesses are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Enterococcus. Among the anaerobic bacteria, Bacteroides, anaerobic streptococci and Fusobacterium predominate. Aerobic, anaerobic or microaerophilic streptococci are isolated in 25�C30% of cultures from liver abscesses (7). In the USA, the incidence of pyogenic abscesses is 8�C15 new cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, accounting for over 80% of cases.

Abscesses due to amebae make up 10% of cases, and are more common in tropical areas, in tourists and in immigrants from developing countries, while fungi and other agents are responsible for less than 10%. Abscesses due to pyogenic bacteria and amebae seem to be more common in men, with the incidence peaking between the ages of 40 and 60 years. Most pathogens reach the liver via the portal system. In normal conditions, the immune system of healthy subjects prevents the colonization of the sinusoids and parenchyma through intrahepatic elimination. Predisposing factors are thus necessary for a liver abscess to arise.

These include trauma, necrotic or hemorrhagic areas, tumors, obstruction and/or primary or secondary malignant stenosis of the bile ducts and/or portal branches, arterial microemboli in systemic sepsis, perfusion defects, iatrogenic cell necrosis after chemoembolization and post-transplant mini-microabscess (MMA) syndrome. However, distal Brefeldin_A abdominal infections are most commonly implicated. Dieulafoy coined the term la foie appendiculaire to describe a picture of multiple liver abscesses following perforated appendicitis, which is in fact one of the most common infectious foci. Other foci include cholecystitis, pylephlebitis, perihepatic and subphrenic abscesses, diverticulitis, IBD and pelvic sepsis (7).

There is consistent

There is consistent selleck chem inhibitor evidence from twin and adoption studies that genetic factors contribute to the etiology of cigarette smoking, playing an important role in smoking initiation, progression to heavy use, and persistence (Fowler et al., 2007; Kendler et al., 1999; Lessov et al., 2004; Munafo & Johnstone, 2008; Sullivan & Kendler, 1999). A meta-analysis (Li, Cheng, Ma, & Swan, 2003) reported that genetic factors were responsible for approximately 50% of the variation noted in both initiation and persistence. However, despite a large number of candidate gene studies (focusing primarily on targets in relevant neurotransmitter pathways and enzymes associated with nicotine metabolism), few reported associations between gene variants and smoking-related phenotypes have proven to replicate reliably.

Recently, however, variation in the 15q24 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 (responsible for encoding ��5, ��3, and ��4 nAChR subunits) has shown promise as a candidate region for smoking behavior. Polymorphisms in this cluster have been linked to multiple smoking-related phenotypes, such as nicotine dependence (Bierut et al., 2008; L. S. Chen, Johnson, et al., 2009; Grucza et al., 2008; S. F. Saccone et al., 2007; Spitz, Amos, Dong, Lin, & Wu, 2008; Thorgeirsson et al., 2008), smoking quantity (Amos et al., 2008; Berrettini et al., 2008; Keskitalo et al., 2009; Lips et al., 2009; Stevens et al., 2008; Thorgeirsson et al., 2008), and smoking cessation (Freathy et al., 2009) as well as smoking-related diseases, such as lung cancer (Amos et al.

, 2008; Hung et al., 2008; Lips et al., 2009; P. Liu et al., 2008; Spitz et al., 2008; Thorgeirsson et al., 2008), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Pillai et al., 2009; Young et al., 2008), peripheral arterial disease (Thorgeirsson et al., 2008), and upper aerodigestive tract cancers (Lips et al., 2009). Whether the associations noted between these variants and diseases are direct or mediated via the variants�� association with smoking-related behaviors, or both, remains a topic of debate (see Thorgeirsson & Stefansson, 2010). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region, rs16969968 in CHRNA5 and rs1051730 in CHRNA3, have generated particular interest with respect to smoking-related behaviors.

The SNP rs16969968 is notable as a missense mutation, resulting in an amino acid change (aspartate to asparagine) at position 398 in the GSK-3 ��-5 subunit protein (Bierut, 2010). This polymorphism appears to be of functional significance��in vitro studies have demonstrated that ��4��2��5 receptors with the aspartic acid variant exhibit a greater response to a nicotine agonist than ��4��2��5 receptors containing the asparagine substitution (Bierut et al., 2008). Reduced nAChR function may therefore predispose to nicotine dependence.

017) Whereas H295 xenografts treated with NVP-AEW541 were simila

017). Whereas H295 xenografts treated with NVP-AEW541 were similar in histological appearance to those treated with IMC-A12 and exhibited a 34% reduction in tumor burden over controls, this decrease fell short of being statistically significant (P = 0.086) (supplementary Fig. 2, published glucose metabolism as supplemental data on The Endocrine Society��s Journals Online Web site at http://jcem.endojournals.org). NVP-AEW541 treatment of mice harboring RL251 xenografts also had an insignificant reduction in tumor volume (P = 0.57). NVP-AEW541 was well tolerated in treated mice with no substantial adverse effects or weight changes observed during treatment (data not shown). Figure 5 Targeted inhibition of tumor growth in vivo.

A, H295 (left panel) and RL251 (right panel) cells were injected sc into athymic nude mice and mice were randomized into treatment groups (n = 8 for H295 and n = 10 for RL251). Groups were treated … To determine whether blocking IGF-1R resulted in decreased IGF signaling in vivo, H295 xenografts were subjected to immunoblot analysis (Fig. 5B5B).). Lysates prepared from two separate tumors from control and IMC-A12-treated mice were immunoblotted for Akt and phospho-AktSer473 levels. Although total Akt expression levels were similar in both treatment arms, phospho-AktSer473 levels were decreased in the tumors of mice treated with IMC-A12, thus revealing a targeted decrease in IGF signaling. Taken together, these results indicate in vivo IGF-1R inhibition caused significant and targeted tumor growth delay of human ACC xenografts and underscores the importance of IGF signaling in ACC pathophysiology.

Inhibition of IGF-1R enhances the inhibitory effects of mitotane Mitotane is the standard of care for treatment of ACC because of its specific cytotoxic effects in cortical cells. To evaluate whether this response could be enhanced by additional IGF inhibition, we investigated the effect of combining mitotane with IGF antagonists in culture and in vivo tumor growth. First, MTS proliferation assays were performed Carfilzomib on H295 and RL251 cells with increasing concentrations of NVP-AEW541 and mitotane (Fig. 6A6A).). Whereas both H295 and RL251 cells exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in proliferation when incubated with mitotane (no NVP-AEW541), only H295 cells demonstrated a further decrease in growth when incubated with mitotane and NVP-AEW541. Individually, 30 ��m mitotane and 3 ��m NVP-AEW541 reduced cell viability to 85 and 77% of control levels, respectively. An additive model for the combinatorial effects of the two agents would predict about 65% cell viability compared with untreated cells.

Limitations of the study include use of a convenience

Limitations of the study include use of a convenience selleck chem sample of smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Thus, these findings may not generalize to smokers not seeking help quitting. Nonetheless, research with smokers who are motivated to quit is important because these are the people who are most amenable to change. Also, the study was cross-sectional in design, which precludes causal inferences. Longitudinal assessment of symptoms would allow discernment of the temporal ordering of these relationships. In addition, anxiety, coping, and emotional support are relevant factors that the present study did not assess. These measures should be included in future studies. Finally, the limitations of self-report data (e.g., social desirability, memory constraints) must be recognized.

Notwithstanding the limitations of this study, its findings can inform treatment plans for Black smokers interested in quitting. Treatments based on the biopsychosocial model aim not only to reduce symptoms but also to improve functioning across these domains (Aitken, 1987). Stress, depression, and alcohol use are modifiable factors that can be managed through established cognitive�Cbehavioral intervention techniques. Future research should test whether attending to these psychosocial factors in Black smokers reduces the prevalence of smoking-related physical symptoms. Funding National Cancer Institute (R03-CA126418). Declaration of Interests None declared. Supplementary Material [Article Summary] Click here to view.

Acknowledgments The authors thank the Syracuse Community Health Center, the Onondaga County Department of Health, and SUNY Upstate Medical University for their support of this work. Special thanks are extended to Maria Ippolitto and Mia Davidner Feldman for their assistance with coordinating the study.
A target sample of 60 support persons was based on the primary aim of examining feasibility. Recruitment occurred over a 5-month period from 2005 to 2006 and consisted of flyers displayed in the community that targeted family members or friends who wanted to help a smoker quit. Individuals were eligible for the study if they were at least 18 years of age, provided written informed consent, had never smoked or had not smoked in the past 6 months, wanted to help a current adult smoker (average of at least one cigarette smoked per day during the past 7 days), and had current and expected contact (face-to-face, telephone, or E-mail) with their smoker on at least 4 days/week for the 6-month study duration, and if their smoker provided written informed consent.

Individuals were excluded if another support person from the same household had enrolled, if another individual had enrolled to help the same smoker, or if the smoker was currently (in the past 30 days) receiving cessation treatment. The study was approved by the Mayo Clinic institutional review board. A total of 98 people expressed interest in the study; Batimastat 85 were reached for screening.

5A) T-MPO 4 dpf larvae presented the following phenotype: 1 red

5A). T-MPO 4 dpf larvae presented the following phenotype: 1. reduction of the whole body length (standard length, SL) and of the oro-anal segment (snout-vent length, SVL) (Fig. 5A); 2. skin hyper-pigmentation selleckbio with melanophores dispersed over the yolk (Fig. 5D); 3. absence of inflated swim-bladder (Fig. 5A,D); 4. impairment of yolk absorption (Fig. 5A,D); 5. microphtalmia (Fig. 5B,E). We also observed a reduced dimension of the posterior otolith of inner ear and of the semicircular canals (Fig. 5A,D). However, this phenotype was not evident in a portion of T-MPO larvae and therefore was not further investigated in the present work. SL and SVL in T-MPO larvae were 10% and 18%, respectively, shorter than in paired controls (Fig. 5C). In addition, the whole area of T-MPO larvae eyes was some 20% smaller than that of controls (Fig.

5C). It is to be noted that (apparently) the iridophore was not affected by the lack of CD during development (Fig. 5E). The lack of CD activity has been shown to be causally associated with neuronal lipofuscinosis [24], [26]�C[29]. However, preliminary observations did not reveal such a phenotype in zebrafish larvae at 4 dpf, probably because of the relative short time. Figure 5 Phenotype of zebrafish cathepsin D following down-regulation by two different morpholinos at 4 dpf. The absence of a phenotype in S-MPO zebrafish could be explained by the presence of maternally supplied mature mRNA which guaranteed a sufficient amount of CD protein in the initial stages of embryo development.

Rescue of T-MPO phenotype by mutated zebrafish CD mRNA To definitively demonstrate that the lack of CD underlies all the phenotypic alterations observed in T-MPO zebrafish, a rescue experiment was performed. For this purpose we used an in vitro synthesized CD mRNA carrying eight nucleotide mutations in the matching sequence targeted by the morpholino (Fig. 6A). We micro-injected wild type zebrafish fertilized eggs at the one/two-cell stage with standard control morpholino oligonucleotide (control, Cilengitide CTRL), T-MPO, or T-MPO along with the mutant CD mRNA (RESCUED). We have assessed the optimal amount of exogenous mRNA needed to restore CD expression in the rescue experiments. In total we analyzed n=40 embryos at 2 dpf (from two independent experiments) and n=60 larvae at 4 dpf (from three independent experiments) for each condition. As shown by western blotting analysis (Fig. 6B), the mutant CD mRNA escaped the targeting by T-MPO and could be efficiently translated. The accumulation level of the CD protein in RESCUED zebrafish decreased with time according to the physiological decay of mRNA, which indirectly prove that its synthesis was indeed driven by the exogenous mRNA (Fig. 6B).