Unexpectedly, we are discovering that key transcription and regul

Unexpectedly, we are discovering that key transcription and regulatory factors pulse on and off repeatedly, and often stochastically, Selleck Vorasidenib even when cells are maintained in constant conditions. This type of spontaneous dynamic behavior is pervasive, appearing in diverse cell types from microbes to mammalian cells. Here, we review recent work showing how pulsing is generated and controlled by underlying regulatory circuits and how it provides critical capabilities to cells in stress response, signaling, and development. A major theme is the ability of pulsing to enable time-based regulation analogous to strategies used in engineered systems. Thus, pulsatile dynamics is emerging as

a central, and still largely unexplored, layer of temporal organization in the cell.”
“There is currently much interest in broad molecular profiling of single cells; a cell’s metabolome-its full complement of small-molecule metabolites-is a direct indicator of phenotypic diversity of single cells and a nearly immediate readout of how cells react to environmental influences. However, the metabolome is very difficult to measure at the single-cell level because of rapid metabolic dynamics, the structural diversity of the molecules, and the inability to amplify Crenolanib datasheet or tag small-molecule metabolites. Measurement techniques including mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, and, to a lesser

extent, optical spectroscopy and fluorescence detection have led to impressive advances in single-cell metabolomics. Even though none of these methodologies can

currently measure the metabolome of a single cell completely, rapidly, and nondestructively, progress has been sufficient such that the field is witnessing a shift from feasibility studies to investigations that yield new biological insight. Particularly interesting fields of application are cancer biology, stem cell research, and monitoring of xenobiotics and drugs in tissue sections at the single-cell Ipatasertib level.”
“Environmental and hormonal signals cause reorganization of microtubule arrays in higher plants, but the mechanisms driving these transitions have remained elusive. The organization of these arrays is required to direct morphogenesis. We discovered that microtubule severing by the protein katanin plays a crucial and unexpected role in the reorientation of cortical arrays, as triggered by blue light. Imaging and genetic experiments revealed that phototropin photoreceptors stimulate katanin-mediated severing specifically at microtubule intersections, leading to the generation of new microtubules at these locations. We show how this activity serves as the basis for a mechanism that amplifies microtubules orthogonal to the initial array, thereby driving array reorientation. Our observations show how severing is used constructively to build a new microtubule array.

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