Mapping data showed that multiple lysine residues are SUMO1 accep

Mapping data showed that multiple lysine residues are SUMO1 acceptors within S-HDAg. Using a genetic fusion strategy, we found that conjugation of SUMO1 to S-HDAg selectively IWP-2 enhanced HDV genomic RNA and mRNA synthesis but not antigenomic RNA synthesis. This result supports our

previous proposition that the cellular machinery involved in the synthesis of HDV antigenomic RNA is different from that for genomic RNA synthesis and mRNA transcription, requiring different modified forms of S-HDAg. Sumoylation represents a new type of modification for HDAg.”
“Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can regulate behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) when animals are exposed to repeated cocaine administration. However, it is unclear whether BDNF signaling through the TrkB receptor can mediate these behavioral responses when animals are given a single cocaine exposure. Because TrkB knockout mice die as neonates, we engineered a transgenic mouse that expressed a dominant negative form of TrkB (dnTrkB) in a conditional and reversible manner. We assessed also activation of endogenous TrkB by quantifying levels of phosphorylated TrkB (p-TrkB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We found that a single exposure to cocaine was sufficient to increase p-TrkB within the NAc 9-12 h after administration. Expression

of the dnTrkB transgene not only selleckchem prevented the acute cocaine-induced increase in p-TrkB, but it also prevented behavioral sensitization and CPP following a single Daporinad cocaine injection. These findings demonstrate that TrkB activation is required both for behavioral sensitization and CPP to a single cocaine exposure. The fact that enhanced TrkB activation is induced within 9 h of a single injection of cocaine suggests that inhibition of TrkB signaling commencing hours after cocaine exposure may prevent at least the initial antecedents to the sensitizing and reinforcing effects of this psychostimulant. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Rift Valley

fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging, highly pathogenic virus; RVFV infection can lead to encephalitis, retinitis, or fatal hepatitis associated with hemorrhagic fever in humans, as well as death, abortions, and fetal deformities in animals. RVFV nonstructural NSs protein, a major factor of the virulence, forms filamentous structures in the nuclei of infected cells. In order to further understand RVFV pathology, we investigated, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and confocal microscopy, the capacity of NSs to interact with the host genome. Our results demonstrate that even though cellular DNA is predominantly excluded from NSs filaments, NSs interacts with some specific DNA regions of the host genome such as clusters of pericentromeric gamma-satellite sequence.

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