Cases were staged for chronic kidney disease by National Kidney F

Cases were staged for chronic kidney disease by National Kidney Foundation guidelines. The impact of patient and procedure related factors on renal function as well as stone recurrence was analyzed retrospectively.

Results: At a mean +/- SD followup of 37.3 +/- 25.4 months the chronic kidney disease stage classification was maintained in 177 patients (66.8%) while the classification of 34 (12.8%) and 54 (20.4%) had improved and deteriorated, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that an immediate postoperative change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was the only factor predicting a change in

renal function in the long term. Stones recurred in 73 of the 234 kidneys (31.2%) that were stone free 3 months after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Stone size increased in 24 of the 38 kidneys (63.2%) with residual stones after intervention. Recurrent urinary infections during followup and diabetes were associated with stone recurrence and residual Saracatinib concentration Adriamycin solubility dmso stone enlargement.

Conclusions: In almost 80% of patients with staghorn stones renal function was improved or maintained after percutaneous nephrolithotomy, as documented during long-term followup. Stones recurred in a third

of the patients with staghorn calculi.”
“Despite modern imaging techniques, assessing and localizing changes in brain activity during whole-body exercise is still challenging. Using an active electroencephalography during (EEG) system in combination with source localization algorithms, this study aimed to localize brain cortical oscillations patterns

in the motor cortex and to correlate these with surface electromyography (EMG)-detected muscular activity during pedaling exercise. Eight subjects performed 2-min isokinetic (90 rpm) cycling bouts at intensities ranging from 1 to 5W kg(-1) body mass on a cycle ergometer. These bouts were interspersed by a minimum of 2 min of passive rest to limit to development of peripheral muscle fatigue. Brain cortical activity within the motor cortex was analyzed using a 32-channel active EEG system combined with source localization algorithms. EMG activity was recorded from seven muscles on each lower limb. EEG and EMG activity revealed comparatively stable oscillations across the different exercise intensities. More importantly, the oscillations in cortical activity within the motor cortex were significantly correlated with EMG activity during the high-intensity cycling bouts. This study demonstrates that it is possible to localize oscillations in brain cortical activity during moderate- to high-intensity cycling exercise using EEG in combination with source localization algorithms, and that these oscillations match the activity of the active muscles in time and amplitude. Results of this study might help to further evaluate the effects of central vs. peripheral fatigue during exercise. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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