These findings further support a role of carbonyl injury in the p

These findings further support a role of carbonyl injury in the pathogenesis and the potential benefits of antioxidant therapy [23]. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are both natural amino acids with wide occurrence. In the context of the neural system, taurine and GABA are inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters, and glutamate and aspartate are excitatory amino acids. Taurine was originally described to inhibit lipid peroxidation [24].

At present, taurine has been demonstrated to protect the brain against lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress [25, 26]. It has also been shown that GABA exhibits anti-hypertensive effect, activates the blood flow, and increases the oxygen supply ICG-001 manufacturer in the brain to enhance metabolic function of brain cells [27]. Evidence suggests GABA-improved visual cortical function in senescent monkeys [28]. Decreased proportion of GABA associated with age-related degradation of neuronal function and neuronal degenerative diseases [29]. Recent study showed GABA-alleviated oxidative damage [30]. Glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) are reported to prevent cardiac

toxicity by alleviating oxidative stress [31]. In this paper, it is hypothesized Tipifarnib mw that several amino acids may inhibit the formation of ALEs and scavenge reactive carbonyl compounds such as MDA based on a potential carbonyl-amine reaction under physiological conditions, and its function is in vitro compared; also, the strong inhibition function of amino acids was investigated in vivo. Methods Materials and preparation Taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp were purchased from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent C., Ltd (Shanghai, China). 1,1,3,3-Tetramethoxypropane (TMP) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were obtained from Fluka Chemie AG (Buchs, Switzerland). MDA detection kit, superoxide dismutase (SOD) detection kit, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) detection kit, and total below protein quantification

kit (Coomassie Brilliant Blue) were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute (Nanjing, China). Other chemicals used were purchased from HuiHong Chemical Reagent C., Ltd. (Changsha, China). MDA stock solution (40 mM) was prepared by hydrolyzing TMP according to a method described by Kikugawa and Beppu [32]. Thus, 0.17 mL (1.0 mmol) of TMP was added in 4 mL of 1.0 M HCl and shaken at 40°C for about 2 min. After the TMP was fully hydrolyzed, the pH was adjusted to 7.4 with 6.0 M NaOH, and the stock solution was finally made up to 25 mL with 0.2 M PBS (pH 7.4). The stock solution was checked by measuring the absorbance at 266 nm using ϵ 266 = 31,500 M−1 cm−1. In vitro incubation experiments and HPLC, fluorescence, and LC/MS analysis of the incubation mixture Several amino acids were incubated with MDA (5.0 mM) in 5 mL of 0.2 M PBS at 37°C (pH 7.4).

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