In the field of probiotic studies, characteristic proteomic profiles can be identified for individual
properties which may serve as bacterial biomarkers buy Captisol for the preliminary selection of strains with the best probiotic potential. This would certainly increase the chances of success of clinical trials through a more focused approach. Methods Strain characterization and standard culture conditions Lactobacillus strains used in this study were identified at the species level by recA PCR (data not shown) . All cultures were maintained as frozen stocks held at -80°C in Cryobank cryogenic beads (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). For experimental use, strains were cultured anaerobically (Anaerocult A system, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) at 37°C in selleck compound Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth (Biokar, Beauvais, France) see more supplemented with 0.05% (w/v) L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate (MRSC; Merck) to early stationary phase, using three successive subcultures (1% v/v inoculation; 12-15 h). Bile salt tolerance Tolerance to bile was assessed by investigating the ability of strains to grow in the presence of different concentrations of bovine bile (Oxgall,
Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA), as previously described . Fresh cultures were inoculated (0.1%, v/v) into MRSC broth containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.8%, and 3.6% (w/v) Oxgall and incubated anaerobically at 37°C. Bacterial growth was monitored in honeycomb plates (Oy Growth Curves AB, Helsinki, Finland) by measuring the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) every 30 min for 48 h using an automated turbidimetric system (Bioscreen C MBR, Oy Growth Curves AB). Three independent experiments were carried out and each assay was performed in triplicate. Comparison of cultures was based on their growth rates in each broth, expressed as a percentage of that of the control which was assigned a value of 100% . Tau-protein kinase Using Statgraphics plus 5.1 software (Manugistics,
Rockville, MD, USA), data were subjected to two-way ANOVA with strain and bile concentration as variables. Multiple comparison test using least significant difference procedure was carried out to compare means for which the ANOVA test indicated significant mean differences (p < 0.05). Whole cell protein extraction The following experiments (including 2-DE) were performed for bacterial cells cultured in two different broths (MRSC and MRSC supplemented with 3.6% Oxgall). Early stationary phase cells from a 10-mL broth culture were harvested and washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Cell pellets were resuspended in 2 mL of PBS and cryobeads of these suspensions were prepared in liquid nitrogen. The bacterial beads were ground in liquid nitrogen using a cryogenic grinder (6870 Freezer/Mill, Spex CertiPrep, Stanmore, UK) with three steps of 3 min at a rate of 24 impacts/s. After sample centrifugation (5000 g for 5 min, 4°C), supernatants were filtered through a 0.45-μm pore size filter (Chromafil PET; Macherey-Nagel, Düren, Germany).