However, Aea-HP-1 did not activate the mosquito SP/MIP receptor i

However, Aea-HP-1 did not activate the mosquito SP/MIP receptor in a well-established in vitro assay for receptor activity. Aea-HP-1 appears to have a role in changing the behavior of female A. aegypti after a blood-meal. Females refrain from host-seeking

in two phases; within 1 h after a blood-meal [23] and a second phase starting 30 h post-blood-meal which continues until oviposition and the start of another gonadotrophic cycle. MG-132 manufacturer The first loss of interest in a host is triggered by distension of the abdomen [24] and the later sustained response to the blood-meal appears to involve the release of Aea-HP-1-like material into the hemolymph at around 24 h after the meal from either neurosecretory or midgut endocrine cells

[4]. Changes in host-seeking behavior MDV3100 in response to a blood-meal are strongly influenced by the size of the meal and whether the female has mated [21]. Gravid females are more likely to desist from seeking a host if they have been inseminated [18], [23], [24], [26] and [27]. Lavoipierre showed that biting by gravid virgin A. aegypti females with developing öocytes (fifth stage) was rapidly and completely inhibited by mating and that this effect lasted for around 4–5 h, suggesting the existence of a fast acting inhibitory factor [27]. Implantation of MAGs or injection of a MAG homogenate into virgin gravid females results in inhibition of host-seeking and feeding, suggesting that substances made in the MAG and presumably Abiraterone datasheet present in seminal fluid are involved in changing female behavior toward the host [13] and [18]. The ability of the male to influence inseminated gravid females in this way is possibly an adaptation that helps to minimize risks from defensive actions of a host (see [21]).

Gravid females who have not yet mated might benefit from maintaining host-seeking behavior because in the natural environment sexually competent males are also attracted to the host, thus increasing the chances of mating success [15]. Our discovery that high concentrations of Aea-HP-1 are found in the MAG and that the peptide is transferred to the female suggests a mechanism by which the male can influence the behavior of the female either by activating sensory neurons in the female reproductive tract or by elevating Aea-HP-1 levels in the hemolymph. We thank the Royal Society (UK) for the award of a Joint Research Grant (REI and Y-JK) and Defra and the Chemicals Regulation Directorate, Health and Safety Executive, UK (NA). We also thank Yeu-Kyung Yoon (Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology) for technical assistance and Jaroslaw Krzywinski (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine) for advice and supplying mosquitoes. The Wellcome Trust are gratefully acknowledged for supporting the bio-imaging facility and the maintenance of the mosquito colony at the University of Leeds (Grants 065321/ZO1/Z and 075513/Z/04/Z).

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