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“Background The genus Chlamydia consists of multiple obligate intracellular bacterial species that infect both humans and animals. The C. trachomatis organisms infect human ocular (serovars A to C) and urogenital/colorectal (serovars D to K & L1 to L3) epithelial tissues, causing trachoma [1] and sexually transmitted diseases [2–4] respectively; The C. pneumoniae organisms invade human respiratory system, not only causing respiratory diseases but also exacerbating pathologies in cardiovascular system [5–7]; C. muridarum (formerly known as C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis agent, designated as MoPn; ref: [8]), although causing no known diseases in humans, has been used as a model pathogen for studying chlamydial pathogenesis and immune responses; The C.

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