Among the Rhizobiaceae, the best studied species regarding osmoad

Among the Rhizobiaceae, the best studied species regarding osmoadaptation is Sinorhizobium meliloti one of the most common alfalfa microsymbionts. Specific Belnacasan molecular weight concomitant accumulation of potassium and glutamate was found to be the primary response in Selleck Selumetinib S. meliloti to hyperosmotic stress [9]. Out of four potassium uptake systems found within the S. meliloti genome, Trk was shown to be the most important K+ importer involved in the osmoadaptation of this bacterium [10]. By using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (a particularly useful

technique for osmoadaptation studies because all types of organic compounds can be detected at once), it was shown selleck that S. meliloti long term response to hyperosmotic stress involves the synthesis and

accumulation of the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide and the disaccharide trehalose, the latter one specially when cells are subjected to severe osmotic stress [3, 11]. Trehalose is a non-reducing glucose disaccharide that is widespread in nature. It protects numerous biological structures against abiotic stresses including desiccation, oxidation, heat, cold, dehydration, and hyperosmotic conditions [6]. Recently, the importance of trehalose in osmotolerance and nodulation of their legume hosts by S. meliloti [12] and Bradyrhizobium japonicum [13] has been firmly established. Trehalose

has shown to play also a major role in desiccation tolerance of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii [14]. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important staple crop in the diets of people of Latin America, Asia, Africa, and other regions of the developing world. Paradoxically, despite common bean is a promiscuous legume able to form symbioses with a number of rhizobial species including R. tropici, R. etli, R. gallicum, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli or R. giardinii [15–17], it is considered as a poor nitrogen fixer, if compared to other grain legumes [18, 19]. This problem has been attributed to the ineffectiveness of indigenous rhizobia [20] or to adverse abiotic Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 conditions [21]. In a recent work, Suarez et al. [22] reported an increase in root nodule number and nitrogen fixation by P. vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa (a Mesoamerican cultivar) inoculated with a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase-overexpressing strain of R. etli. Thus, manipulating trehalose metabolism in P. vulgaris looks a promising strategy to improve plant tolerance to osmotic stress and grain yield. Compared to this body of knowledge on the osmoadaptation of these agronomically important rhizobacteria, little is known about the osmostress responses of rhizobial strains nodulating common bean in Africa. The purpose of the work described here was threefold.

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