We focus our review on four visual discrimination paradigms that

We focus our review on four visual discrimination paradigms that have been successfully translated into the human arena: configural concurrent discriminations, pair-wise “”morph”" discriminations, oddity discriminations, and configural oddity discriminations. The data from the animal studies are first reviewed, followed by illustrations of how the tasks have been utilized in human research. We then turn to the canonical impairment in animal models of amnesia, object recognition, and show how impairments in object recognition can be understood within the representational-hierarchical framework. This is followed by a discussion of predictions of the view related to classic issues in

amnesia research, namely whether CH5424802 in vivo amnesia is due to a deficit of encoding, storage or retrieval, and the related issue of the role of interference in amnesia. Finally, we provide evidence Ispinesib cell line from animal and human studies that even the hippocampus almost universally regarded as a module for memory may be better understood within the representational-hierarchical paradigm. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

present a new computationally efficient method for large-scale polypeptide folding using coarse-grained elastic networks and gradient-based continuous optimization techniques. The folding is governed by minimization of energy based on Miyazawa-Jernigan contact potentials. Using this method we are able to substantially reduce the computation time on ordinary desktop computers for simulation of polypeptide folding starting from a fully unfolded state. We compare our results with available native state structures from Protein Data Bank (PDB) for a few de-novo proteins and two natural proteins, Ubiquitin and Lysozyme. Based on our simulations we are able to draw the energy landscape

for a small de-novo protein. Chignolin. We also Niclosamide use two well known protein structure prediction software, MODELLER and GROMACS to compare our results. In the end, we show how a modification of normal elastic network model can lead to higher accuracy and lower time required for simulation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Despite a half century of development, the orthodox monkey model of human amnesia needs improvement, in part because of two problems inherent in animal models of advanced human cognition. First, animal models are perforce comparative, but the principles of comparative and evolutionary biology have not featured prominently in developing the orthodox model. Second, no one understands the relationship between human consciousness and cognition in other animals, but the orthodox model implicitly assumes a close correspondence. If we treat these two difficulties with the deference they deserve, monkeys can tell us a lot about human amnesia and memory.

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