Transference may thus be the main factor explaining the presence

Transference may thus be the main factor explaining the presence of virulence genes in diazotrophic symbionts (e.g., homologous virB1-virB11 in Rhizobium (= Agrobacterium)tumefaciens and Mesorhizobium loti R7A) [20, 21] as well as nitrogen-fixing genes in pathogenic bacteria (e.g. homologous to the cluster fixNOQPGHIS in the pathogens Brucella melitensis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) [22]. In addition, it has also been demonstrated

that the plant pathogen R. tumefaciens is capable of nodulating legumes after receiving a symbiotic plasmid [23]. However, until now, the functional evidence of the natural coexistence of genes for symbiosis and pathogenicity has been demonstrated only in strains of R. rhizogenes [24]. Despite the intriguing evolutionary questions raised in the analysis of symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria of the this website order Rhizobiales, very few studies of comparative genomics with a significant number of distinct genera and representative species

of both lifestyles have been conducted between species of this prokaryotic order. In this study we have done such see more comparisons aiming at increasing the existent knowledge about the evolutionary divergence of these biological processes. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed in order to analyze the dynamics of the symbiosis and/or pathogenesis processes along the evolution of the species in study. The phylogenetic reconstruction model obtained with the 104 concatenated housekeeping proteins of 25 species and 30 strains with complete genome available presented a branched topology of two Selleck Salubrinal groups – one Tideglusib composed mostly of photosynthetic, methylotrophic, and bioremediation bacteria; and the second composed mostly of symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria. The second group is further subdivided into two major subgroups, one with the symbionts (except for R. tumefaciens, a pathogen showing

high similarity with the symbionts), and another gathering the pathogens (Figure 1). Non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and bacteria involved in bioremediation closer to symbionts and pathogens in study may assist in the origin and ancestry genes and the gene flow occurring in Rhizobiales, and were considered in the comparisons. Figure 1 Phylogeny model reconstructed with 104 housekeeping concatenated proteins of representatives of the Rhizobiales order. Phylogeny model reconstructed with 104 housekeeping concatenated proteins of 30 strains (belonging to 25 species) of the order Rhizobiales. The Neighbor-Joining method was applied with Phylip 3.67 program and 1,000 replicates for bootstrap support. Representatives of the beta-Proteobacteria class were used as the outgroup.

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