To colabel adipocytes with Bodipy-C12 and NBD-2-deoxyglucose (Inv

To colabel adipocytes with Bodipy-C12 and NBD-2-deoxyglucose (Invitrogen), explants were incubated for 1 h in glucose-free DMEM (Invitrogen) containing 10 nM insulin, washed twice with PBS, and then incubated for SKI-606 additional 10 min with 200 ��M NBD-2-deoxyglucose in 200 ��l of PBS at 37��C. Tissue was washed with PBS and overlaid with 200 ��l of M199 medium, and NBD fluorescence was collected as described below. Following NBD imaging, 200 ��l of prewarmed QBT Fatty Acid Uptake Kit (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) was carefully added to the same well. Green fluorescent images were collected over 10 min of incubation. Confocal microscopy. Image recording was conducted using an inverted Leica SP5 AOBS spectral confocal system equipped with a motorized, temperature-controlled stage and HC PL FLUOTAR 10.

0 �� 0.30 and ��20 PL APO NA 0.70 dry objectives. Bodipy-C12 (excitation peak, 488 nm) was excited with an Argon laser, and images were recorded at emission bandwidth of 500�C550 nm. For QBT/NBD-2-deoxyglucose double-labeling experiments, NBD-2-deoxyglucose-labeled tissue was illuminated with an excitation wavelength of 488 nm (16% power), and fluorescence was collected at emission bandwidth of 498�C606 nm. Tissue was labeled with QBT (green Bodipy-C12) and illuminated with excitation wavelength of 488 nm (6% power), and fluorescence was collected at emission bandwidth of 500�C524 nm. Because NBD fluorescence appears weak compared with Bodipy fluorescence, it is possible to perform sequential double-labeling experiments by lowering excitation power and narrowing the emission bandwidth of the second (Bodipy) channel without a substantial bleed-through from the NBD channel.

WGA-Alexa fluor 633 was excited at 633 nm. In Bodipy/ethidium homodimer colabeling experiments, Bodipy was excited at 488 nm and fluorescence collected at 500�C550 nm, and ethidium was excited at 561 nm and fluorescence collected at 570�C650 nm. Image processing and analysis. The image analysis algorithm is illustrated in Supplemental Fig. S4 (Supplemental Material for this article can be found on the AJP-Endocrinology and Metabolism web site). Typically, 20�C30 z-sections, 5 ��m apart, were collected at 400 Hz, resulting in individual image dimensions of 1,550 �� 1,550 ��m. For high-resolution imaging, images were collected at 1-��m intervals.

Leica ��lif�� stacks of images were opened with the LOCI plug-in data browser and analyzed in Image J as follows. The stack of images was projected onto a single flat image (z-project, sum slices) containing integrated pixel intensities of the z-stack Entinostat (Supplemental Fig. S4A). The regions of interest (ROI), corresponding to cell boundaries, were drawn manually (ROI manager). Cells with poorly defined boundaries were excluded from analysis (Supplemental Fig. S1A).

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