Theoretical curves are shown to reproduce correctly the experimental profiles obtained from clinical trials. This enables in turn to extract an estimate of the metabolization rate. A difference in metabolization
rate between CYP2D6 poor and extensive metabolizers is also found, and the stereoselectivity in the O-demethylation of tramadol highlighted. Our results allow one to quantify the dose of (+)-tramadol (resp. (-)-tramadol) administered to poor or extensive metabolizers, if the same effect is sought. The latter is here quantified through the blood concentration of (+)-metabolites (resp. (-)-metabolites). (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The role of the GABA-A alpha-2 receptor subunit in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and prefrontal cortex (M2 area) Nirogacestat during a fear session (performed one week
after the conditioned fear test), was studied. We employed a model of high (HR) and low anxiety (LR) rats divided according to their conditioned freezing response. Pretreatment of rats with D-cycloserine immediately before the fear session attenuated fear response in HR and LR rats and increased the density of alpha-2 subunits in the BLA, M2 area and DG of HR animals. The less potent behavioural influence of midazolam (in HR group only) was linked to the increased expression of alpha-2 subunit in M2 area and DG. These results EPZ004777 molecular weight support a role of the GABA-A receptor alpha-2 Dorsomorphin subunit in processing of emotional cortico-hippocampal input to the BLA. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“AIM: To investigate whether potassium cyanate can inactivate glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GARDH)
and thioltransferase (TTase) in bovine lens.\n\nMETHODS: Fresh intact bovine lenses were incubated with 100mmol/L potassium cyanate (KCNO) for 7 and 12 days respectively. Then all lens were incubated in 50mmol/L DMEM solution. The proteins in the water-soluble fractions from the normal control and the cyanate-modified lens were extracted. The activity of GAPDH and TTase in the water-soluble fraction after incubation at 37 degrees C was measured by spectrophotometer.\n\nRESULTS: GAPDH activity was significantly lower in the cyanate-modified lens proteins than that of the normal control( P<0.01), and considerably diminished in protein incubated with 100mmol/L potassium cyanate for 12 days. There were statistically significant differences in the activity of TTase between the normal control lenses and the carbamylated lenses incubated for 7 days( P<0.05) and 12 days( P<0.01). However, there was no statistical difference between the samples incubated with 100mmol/L KCNO for 7 and 12 days (P=0.19296).\n\nCONCLUSION: This study provides evidence to show carbamylation is able to inactivate GAPDH and TTase in bovine lenses.