The spectral position of each grating was chosen in order to have

The spectral position of each grating was chosen in order to have one reflection peak on each side of the LPG resonance. In this scheme the resonant peak of the LPG shifts in wavelength in accordance with the variations of the refractive index of the surrounding medium. This perturbation thus changes the intensity of light reflected by selleck compound the two FBGs. The refractive index was measured by the ratio between the intensities refl
Performing several simultaneous measurements with different types of sensor in conducting solutions is difficult, because of the crosstalk between sensors mediated through the solution. A sensor that applies an electrical current to the solution and another that monitors voltage potential can easily affect each other.
Therefore, to make simultaneous multimodal measurements at a localized point using several kinds of sensor we need to carefully consider the operating methods used in order to avoid Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries crosstalk.In recently years, precise control of the growth conditions for plants has become an active area of research for ensuring food safety [1,2], increasing food production [3,4], Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and decreasing the labor load on agricultural workers [5]. The key point to accomplish these goals is the proper use of sensors. Numerical measurements that quantify the changes to plants and the growth environment using the sensors are required. Various kinds of sensor are used Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in agriculture, but these sensors are insufficient for the precision control required. Especially, in situ monitoring of plant beds, such as measurements of the nutrient concentration, pH, etc.
, is difficult because particle sizes and plant roots, which are with the solution, are non-uniform [6�C9]. Therefore, for in situ measurements in plant beds, several different types of sensor are needed to make simultaneous measurements at the same point. In addition, the size of the sensors needs to be much smaller than the sensors currently used, which are Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries more than a centimeter in length, in order to make observations at localized points, thereby complex changes to the various conditions at different points around the roots.We Cilengitide focused on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and temperature sensing in soilless agriculture. These data are very important for precision agriculture [10,11]. The pH is controlled to prevent barrier growth.
The measurement is important because the solubility of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions is different and the solution concentration changes with solubility [12�C15]. The EC is measured to obtain the ion concentration of all the species in the nutrient solution [16]. In precision agriculture, the composition ratio of the main U0126 FDA ion species, i.e., nitrogen ions, phosphoric acid and potassium, in the nutrient solution is known by the user. Therefore, measurement of the total ion concentration is sufficient [17].

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