: The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new too

: The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis.

click here Nucleic Acids Res 2009, 37:D141-D145.PubMedCrossRef 54. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, Lesniewski RA, Oakley BB, Parks DH, Robinson CJ, et al.: Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009,75(23):7537–7541.PubMedCrossRef 55. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang JH, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ: Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 1997,25(17):3389–3402.PubMedCrossRef 56. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, check details Nei M, Kumar S: MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 2011,28(10):2731–2739.PubMedCrossRef 57. Muyzer G, de Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG: Profiling of complex

microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 1993,59(3):695–700.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ZPL sampled rumen contents, extracted DNA, constructed the clone library, data analysis and drafted the manuscript. ADGW was involved with interpretation of data Megestrol Acetate and with preparing the manuscript. HLL designed the study and drafted the paper. KB, YFY, CX and KYW contributed to

sample rumen contents and all of lab works. GYL and FHYconceived the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background S. aureus is a globally important human pathogen, causing a variety of diseases such as pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, blood-stream infections, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis, as well as toxin-mediated syndromes like toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning [1, 2]. Since the onset of the pandemic waves of MRSA over the past decades, it has become the most common cause of both hospital- and community-acquired infection worldwide [3]. According to epidemiological data in 2005, the mean prevalence of MRSA across China was more than 50%, and in Shanghai, the rate was over 80% [4]. To control the spread of MRSA in hospitals, measures such as universal hand hygiene practices have been introduced into Shanghai teaching hospitals. However, as yet there are no selleck chemicals programs to screen for asymptomatic MRSA carriers in Chinese hospitals. A re-evaluation of the level of MRSA infection in Shanghai teaching hospitals is required to evaluate the effect of the current infection control measures. The major MRSA clones that cause infections worldwide belong to five pandemic MRSA lineages: CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30, and CC45 [5–9]. Some virulence genes show strong associations with specific molecular types; for instance, the sea, sek, and seq genes were identified in all ST239 strains.

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