Smoking restrictions in the home may also prevent

Smoking restrictions in the home may also prevent Vismodegib solubility relapse among former smokers (Shields, 2007). Restrictions on smoking in the home may also be related to better psychological health as smoking is related to psychological symptoms, notably depression and anxiety (Boden, Fergusson, & Horwood, 2010; Degenhardt & Hall, 2001). In addition, it is possible that living in a home with rules against smoking may heighten individuals�� awareness about their health and thus support the adoption of a healthy lifestyle that not only excludes smoking but also includes healthy nutrition, exercise, and sleeping habits. Less exposure to smoke and a healthier lifestyle, in turn, may contribute to greater psychological well-being (Hamer, Stamatakis, & Batty, 2010; Wainwright et al., 2007).

Thus, the benefits of introducing smoking restrictions in one’s home may extend to other areas of health. The main goal of this study was thus to empirically test the hypothesis that smoking restrictions in the home are related to engaging in a healthy lifestyle and, ultimately, to greater psychological well-being. Support for this hypothesis is provided by research, which suggests that people tend to make improvements in several health behaviors (i.e., eating nutritious food, exercising, reducing substance use) concurrently (Unger, 1996). Implementation of one health-related behavior (here, introducing a smoking ban) may facilitate the adoption of other health behaviors (e.g., eating better food, exercising). For example, one study of middle-aged women found that those who had quit smoking reported higher levels of exercise and taking in a healthier diet (Perkins et al.

, 1993). Another study, applying the transtheoretical model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1992), found that participants in the advanced stages of smoking cessation demonstrated more healthful behaviors than those in earlier stages (Unger, 1996). According to this model, individuals�� willingness to change their health behaviors can be classified into five stages along a continuum (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, Entinostat and maintenance). Unger’s study, which examined the relationship between stages of smoking cessation and alcohol use, exercise, and safe driving practices, found that smokers who were not even considering quitting (i.e., precontemplators) also scored lower on other health behaviors. Specifically, precontemplators reported taking in more drinks per occasion than all other groups, binge-drank more frequently than all other groups, and exercised less than actors and maintainers (Unger, 1996). These findings show that not being willing to give up cigarette use is related to other health-compromising behaviors.

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