PubMedCrossRef 59 Wang YH, Hou YW, Lee HJ: An intracellular deli

PubMedCrossRef 59. Wang YH, Hou YW, Lee HJ: An intracellular delivery method for siRNA by an arginine-rich peptide. J Biochem Biophys Methods 2007, 70:579–586.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests All authors declare no competing interests. Authors’ contributions BRL performed all experiments and drafted the manuscript. YWH participated in the study design and helped this website drafting the manuscript. HJL conceived the study idea and assisted in drafting the manuscript. All authors read, commented, and approved the manuscript.”
“Background The Zelazny Most surface waste management system is the largest mineral waste repository in Europe and one of the largest

in the world. It is located in the Lubin-Glogow Copper District in southwest Poland and covers an area of 13.94 km2. Polymetallic organic-rich copper ore is currently mined underground in this area. This ore is CH5424802 ic50 characterized by its neutral or slightly alkaline pH (of up to 8.5) and its high salinity. Zelazny Most reservoir was built in 1974 to collect flotation tailings from three local copper-ore enrichment facilities, for the storage of groundwater from the Lubin-Glogow mines, and to be used to facilitate flotation Ispinesib of sulfides during ore processing and transport of the gangue. The total volumes of wastes and water present in Zelazny Most are estimated to be 476 mln m3 and 7.5 mln m3, respectively. The annual deposition of flotation tailings varies from 20 to 26 million

tons [1]. The deposits in Zelazny Most have an alkaline pH (8.5) and are highly contaminated with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Ni, Co, Zn and Cr) and various organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as anthracene, biphenyl, dibenzofurane, dibenzothiophene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, naphthalene, methylnaphthalene, methylphenanthrene, Niclosamide phenanthrene and pyrene ( [2] and unpublished data). Zelazny Most is located in a seismically active area; however the seismicity is not a natural phenomenon, but is induced by the mining works in the nearby underground copper mines. This seismic activity could lead to the release of the contents of Zelazny Most to the environment, which would have devastating

consequences [3]. The water stored in Zelazny Most is of the Cl-SO4-Na-Ca type with mineralization levels of up to 21,400 mg l-1. The respective concentrations of sodium (Na+) and chlorine (Cl-) ions are up to 4500 mg l-1 and around 8000 mg l-1, which makes this environment extremely salty [4]. Saline environments are inhabited by specialized microorganisms, typically halophilic Archaea (e.g. Halobacteriaceae) and Bacteria (e.g. Halomonadaceae). The family Halomonadaceae (Oceanospirillales, Gammaproteobacteria) currently is comprised of 9 genera. These are chemoorganoheterotrophic, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, most of which are halophilic or halotolerant. The genus Halomonas (type species H. elongata, isolated in 1980) contains over forty named species.

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