More than 30% of the species were found on less than four trees (

More than 30% of the species were found on less than four trees (45% on trees exposed for 0–4 years and 36% on trees exposed for 10–16 years).

Eleven red-listed lichen species were found; six near threatened (NT), three vulnerable (VU) and one endangered (EN) on clearcuts; six NT, two VU and one EN in young forests. The most common red-listed species were Lobaria pulmonaria which was found in all stands, Lecanora impudens found on 11 clearcuts and in all 12 young PCI-32765 cell line forests, and Collema furfuraceum found on 11 clearcuts and in 11 young forests ( Appendix). Of the aspen-dependent lichens 72% were spore-dispersed (63% of all lichens), and 11% had cyanobacteria as photobiont (11% of all lichens). Tree diameter and stand area did not differ between clearcuts and young forests (t-test: p = 0.06 and p = 0.46, respectively). The GLMM models showed a higher species richness on trees exposed for 10–16 years than on trees exposed for 0–4 years Akt inhibitor ( Table 2). There was also a geographical

difference in species richness, with more species towards the south and the east ( Table 2). Aspens exposed for 10–16 years had a higher number of aspen-dependent lichens, spore-dispersed lichens, lichens adapted to open environments and lichens sensitive to light, but the number of cyanolichens did not differ. The number of aspen-dependent lichens increased with tree diameter, stand area and towards the east. The number of cyanolichens also increased with diameter ( Table 2). The number of records of red-listed lichens was too low to allow statistical testing. In the ISA only one species, Lecidea albofuscescens (p = 0.008), was characteristic for clearcuts. Almost 40 species were characteristic of young forest; among them Caloplaca cerina, C. holocarpa, C. jemtlandica, Lecanora circumborealis, L. hagenii, Melanelia olivacea and Parmeliopsis ambigua, all with p-values <0.001 ( Appendix). The estimated total species richness within the whole study area varied among the estimators. Jackknife 2 estimated a total species pool of 249.9,

Chao 2 of 230.0 and Bootstrapping of 211.5, and the mean from Liothyronine Sodium all three estimators was 230.4. The 195 species found therefore represent 85% of the mean estimated size of the regional species pool. From the rarefaction curve the number of trees required to capture a certain proportion of species can be estimated. If, for example, 75% of the total lichen species pool were to be captured 384 aspen trees are needed, or if 50% were to be captured 81 trees are needed in the study area. Our study clearly shows that lichen species richness increases with time since clear-cutting on aspen trees retained during logging. Many species associated with old forest persist, while new species adapted to open environments colonize. In the light of this, we conclude that retention trees both function as lifeboats for existing species, and provide an early-successional habitat for colonizing species.

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