Many techniques discussed in this review are routinely employed b

Many techniques discussed in this review are routinely employed by applied sport psychologists and there is an abundant amount of empirical data supporting the use of abovementioned psychological strategies to aid in or enhance athletic performance.47, 48, 49, 50, 61, 62, 63, 64,

65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72 and 73 Research examining the effectiveness of employing the psychological intervention with injured athletes during sport injury rehabilitation is significantly lacking. Our findings highlight BKM120 the importance of development, implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention strategies through research so these evidences can be utilized to assist injured athletes’ successful recovery. “
“Upper extremity injuries comprise selleck kinase inhibitor more than half of all injuries occurring in baseball, and affect a large number of competitive baseball players.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 Epidemiological studies demonstrate that approximately 32%–35%6 and 7 and 17%–58%4, 6, 7, 11 and 12 of baseball players experience shoulder

and elbow pain, respectively. In particular, pitchers are susceptible to upper extremity injuries as indicated by higher incidences of shoulder and elbow injury reported at high school,5 collegiate,3 and 8 and professional13 levels when compared to position players. Furthermore, injuries sustained by pitchers tend to be more severe compared to injuries sustained by position players, as 73% of injuries that resulted in surgery in high school baseball were sustained by pitchers.5 Possible consequences of upper extremity injuries in baseball players include surgery,5, 8, 14, 15 and 16 prolonged time loss from sports,3 and 8 decreased quality of life due to difficulty performing activities of daily living,1 cost,17

and retirement from baseball. It is estimated that approximately 10% of all shoulder injuries sustained by high school baseball players result in surgery.5 Once surgery is performed, a prolonged time loss is expected, as many of the surgeries 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase performed on baseball players require long recovery period. For example, recovery time from ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction, which is one of the most commonly performed surgeries on baseball players, ranges from 12 to 18 months.10, 16 and 18 Following injury and/or surgery, difficulty using the affected elbow/shoulder may result in decreased quality of life. A study by Register-Mihalik et al.1 demonstrated that some shoulder and elbow pain in high school baseball pitchers are associated with difficulties performing tasks at home and at school. In addition to pain and disability, injuries incur significant costs.

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