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the experimental work and data analysis, and drafted the manuscript. LZ carried out part of the experimental work. ZN and YC participated in the result discussions. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background One-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures have attracted extensive research interests in the past decade due to their versatile application potential in nanooptoelectronics , electromechanics , and catalysis . It has been found that doping impurities, especially group III elements, such as Al , Ga , In , can significantly enhance the electrical conductivity and influence the optical properties.
In order to generate desirable electrical, optical, and catalytic properties, MDV3100 molecular weight 1D ZnO nanostructures have been doped with selected elements. Among these dopants, In is recognized as one of the most efficient elements used to tailor the optoelectronic properties of ZnO . For example, In doping may induce structural defects such as stacking faults , twin boundaries , and superlattice structures , or result in weak localization Idelalisib purchase and electron–electron interactions , which can significantly affect the electrical and photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO nanostructures. On the other hand, it is quite interesting that In doping can change the morphology of ZnO nanowires
(NWs) . There are three typical fast-growth directions (, [10 0], and [11 0]) and ± (0001) polar surfaces in wurtzite ZnO . In general, ZnO NWs grow along  direction. When doped with In, however, they may grow along some other directions, such as the non-polar [01 0] direction . ZnO nanostructures usually have plenty of surface states acting as carrier traps. The existence of such traps is unwanted in catalytic applications, which take advantage of free carriers in the surface region of ZnO nanostructures. In this regard, ZnO nanostructures with large surface-to-volume ratio, high free electron concentration, and low density of surface traps are highly desired. In this work, we demonstrated that such ZnO nanostructures can be achieved via In doping. The In-doped ZnO NWs were grown by one-step vapor transport deposition. The effect of In doping content on the morphology, structure, and optical properties of the NWs has been investigated.