In summary, the present study has added another example showing that IgA antibodies targeting internal viral antigens could proactively participate in mucosal immune protection by intracellular neutralization and has provided evidence that M protein might be included as a target antigen in future AZD6244 purchase MV vaccine design.”
“The reinforcing effects of nicotine are mediated in part by brain dopamine systems. Serotonin, acting via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, modulates dopamine function. In these experiments we examined the effects
of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro60-0175 and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (M100907, volinanserin) on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. Male Long-Evans rats self-administered nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, IV) on either a FR5 or a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Ro60-0175 reduced responding for nicotine on both schedules. While Ro60-0175 also reduced responding for food reinforcement,
response rates under drug treatment were several-fold higher than in animals responding for nicotine. M100907 did not alter responding for nicotine, or food, on either schedule. In tests CB-839 of reinstatement of nicotine-seeking, rats were first trained to lever press for IV infusions of nicotine; each infusion was also accompanied by a compound cue consisting of a light and tone. This response was then extinguished over multiple sessions. Injecting rats with a nicotine prime (0.15 mg/kg) reinstated responding; reinstatement was also observed when responses were accompanied by the nicotine associated cue. Ro60-0175 attenuated reinstatement of responding induced by nicotine and by the cue. The effects of Ro60-0175 on both forms of reinstatement were blocked by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084. M100907 also reduced reinstatement induced by either the nicotine prime or by the nicotine associated cue. The results indicate that 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors may be potential targets for therapies to treat some Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 aspects of nicotine dependence. (C)
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The feasibility of using virtual reality (VR) technology to induce a physiological response to stress was assessed in 12 volunteers during a laboratory session in which each participant completed a speech task within a VR environment and a math task outside the VR environment. Both tasks were effective in eliciting a physiological response with significant increases observed in response to each stress task in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Increases in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were observed during the speech task and in plasma epinephrine concentrations during the math task although these differences did not reach statistical significance.