Experiment 4 demonstrated a similar reducing-generalization effec

Experiment 4 demonstrated a similar reducing-generalization effect when generalization of LI from BX to X was assessed. All of these data are consistent with the notion that prolonged preexposure to BX enhances its discriminability. Different learning mechanisms that might be responsible for this perceptual learning effect are discussed.”
“People are generally better at recognizing faces from their own race than from a different race, as has been shown in numerous behavioral studies. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how differences between own-race and other-race faces influence

the neural correlates of memory encoding and recognition. ERPs of Asian and Caucasian participants were recorded during the study and test phases of a Remember-Know Copanlisib cost paradigm with Chinese and Caucasian faces. A behavioral other-race effect was apparent in both groups, Trichostatin A in vitro neither of which recognized other-race faces as well as own-race faces; however, Caucasian subjects showed stronger

behavioral other-race effects. In the study phase, memory encoding was assessed with the ERP difference due to memory (Dm). Other-race effects in memory encoding were only found for Caucasian subjects. For subsequently “”recollected”" items, Caucasian subjects showed less positive mean amplitudes for own-race than other-race faces indicating that less neural activation was required for successful memory encoding of own-race faces. For the comparison of subsequently “”recollected”" and “”familiar”" items, Caucasian subjects showed similar brain activation only for own-race faces suggesting that subsequent familiarity and recollection of own-race faces arose from similar memory encoding processes. Experience with a race also influenced old/new effects, which are ERP correlates of recollection measured during MRIP recognition testing. Own-race faces elicited a typical parietal old/new effect, whereas old/new effects for other-race faces

were prolonged and dominated by activity in frontal brain regions, suggesting a stronger involvement of post-retrieval monitoring processes. These results indicate that the other-race effect is a memory encoding- and recognition-based phenomenon. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In an experiment with rats, an appetitive conditioning method was used to investigate the generality of the hypothesis that extinction should arouse attention to contextual cues, resulting in all learning in that context becoming context specific. Rats received appetitive conditioning with a tone either while extinction of a flasher occurred (Group With Extinction) or while it did not (Group No Extinction). Half of each group was subsequently tested in extinction in the context in which training had taken place or in a different context. The results revealed a three-way interaction of extinction and context with trials, in a direction opposite to the one the hypothesis would suggest.

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