Design Retrospective study Animals studied One hundred and twent

Design Retrospective study. Animals studied One hundred and twenty-four cats with surgical correction of lower eyelid entropion of 200 eyes over a 13 year period. Methods Records of 124 cats were reviewed for signalment, type of entropion, surgical procedure performed and post-operative result. Results Combinations of the Hotz-Celsus (HC), lateral canthal closure and full thickness wedge resection techniques were used to treat 64 bilateral and

60 unilateral cases of lower lid entropion. Twenty-three cats were under a year of age, 52 cats were aged between 2 and 8 years and 49 were over 8 years old. The overall success rate for a single surgical procedure (which may consist of multiple techniques) to correct lower eyelid entropion was 96.0% per eye. The remaining 4.0% had the entropion resolved VE-821 in vitro with a second surgery. A combined HC and lateral canthal closure had a 99.21% success rate of resolving lower lid entropion. Geriatric cats were the most likely age group to develop corneal sequestra; 37% of cats in this group presented with entropion and corneal sequestra concurrently. Seventeen percent

of cats that presented with unilateral entropion and did not have prophylactic surgery on the fellow eye went on to develop entropion in the fellow eye. Conclusions A combined HC and lateral canthal closure was the most effective surgical technique 17-AAG purchase in managing lower eyelid entropion of cats in our study. Prophylactic lateral canthal closure in the unaffected eye is recommended.”
“PURPOSE. Amblyopia is a developmental disorder that results in both monocular and binocular deficits. Although traditional treatment in clinical practice (i.e., refractive correction, Selleck Prexasertib or occlusion by patching and penalization of the fellow eye) is effective in restoring monocular visual acuity, there is little information on how binocular function, especially stereopsis, responds to traditional amblyopia treatment. We aim to evaluate the effects of perceptual

learning on stereopsis in observers with amblyopia in the current study. METHODS. Eleven observers (21.1 +/- 5.1 years, six females) with anisometropic or ametropic amblyopia were trained to judge depth in 10 to 13 sessions. Red-green glasses were used to present three different texture anaglyphs with different disparities but a fixed exposure duration. Stereoacuity was assessed with the Fly Stereo Acuity Test and visual acuity was assessed with the Chinese Tumbling E Chart before and after training. RESULTS. Averaged across observers, training significantly reduced disparity threshold from 776.7 ” to 490.4 ” (P smaller than 0.01) and improved stereoacuity from 200.3 ” to 81.6 ” (P smaller than 0.01). Interestingly, visual acuity also significantly improved from 0.44 to 0.35 logMAR (approximately 0.9 lines, P smaller than 0.05) in the amblyopic eye after training.

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