c-C3BP or rGAPDH was observed (Figure 3c, d) The H c-C3BP or rGA

c-C3BP or rGAPDH was observed (Figure 3c, d). The H.c-C3BP or rGAPDH interaction with C3 was specific and strong, which was evident from the fact that the column-bound C3 was eluted at high salt wash (0·5 m NaCl) or by lowering the pH to 2·2. To test whether H.c-C3BP or rGAPDH binding to C3 would influence complement function, a simple haemolytic assay was performed where the lysis of sensitized sheep erythrocytes by serum complement proteins was measured. As shown in Figure 3(e, f), a dose-dependent inhibition of erythrocyte lysis by H.c-C3BP and rGAPDH was observed. To rule out that the observed inhibition was not due to suppression of the classical pathway, binding of C1q protein by H.c-C3BP was

measured. No interaction among these proteins was evident in the microtitre plate assay (not shown). To confirm check details whether the inhibition of erythrocyte lysis by H.c-C3BP or rGAPDH was due to suppression of C3 activation, the formation of membrane attack complex (MAC) was measured on the LPS-coated surface. A dose-dependent decrease in the formation of MAC was observed in the presence of H.c-C3BP or rGAPDH (Figure 3g, h). The presence of H.c-C3BP (GAPDH) in the ES products of H. contortus suggests that the protein should

also be secreted in the host stomach where it is likely to come in contact with the immune effector cells at the injured site leading to antibody production. This assumption was amply supported by the presence of anti-H.c-C3BP/GAPDH antibodies in H. contortus-infected animals. The H.c-C3BP and rGAPDH reacted with the infected animal sera, whereas no reaction was observed with the serum Navitoclax manufacturer from an uninfected animal in Western blot (Figure 4). For H. contortus infection, six healthy 6- to 8-month-old goats were infected with ~10 000 L3-stage larvae orally, and the blood was collected before infection and every week post-infection, serum separated and stored frozen. Dehydrogenase activity in H.c-C3BP and

rGAPDH was routinely measured in fresh samples. The specific activity Bay 11-7085 in H.c-C3BP was 0·3 U/mg protein, whereas it was higher in the rGAPDH sample, 1 U/mg protein. Enzyme activity was low in stored rGAPDH probably due to hydrolysis of the protein (Table 1). This study demonstrates the presence of a complement-C3-binding protein (H.c-C3BP) in the ES products of H. contortus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of such an activity. Initially, H.c-C3BP was isolated using C3–Sepharose column, and the protein band had a size of ~14 kDa, which was used for antibody production and mass spectrometry analysis. The mass spectrometry data suggested H.c-C3BP as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The peptides that matched GAPDH of H. contortus represented different regions and spread throughout the protein structure. The size of H. contortus GAPDH is ~37 kDa [21], whereas the recombinant form is ~43 kDa including the His tag (this study).

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