A pronounced reduction in glycolysis was found only in PTCX, in which C-13 labeling of glucose, lactate, and alanine was decreased. C-13 enrichment in lactate, however, was reduced in all areas investigated. The largest reductions in glutamate labeling were detected in FCX and PTCX, whereas in hippocampus, striatum, and Nac, C-13 labeling of glutamate was only slightly but significantly reduced. The thalamus was the only region with unaffected glutamate labeling. c-Aminobutyric acid
(GABA) labeling was reduced in all areas, but most significantly in FCX. Glutamine and aspartate labeling was unchanged. Mitochondrial metabolites were also affected. Fumarate labeling was reduced in FCX and thalamus, whereas malate labeling was reduced in FCX, selleck chemical PTCX, striatum, and NAc. Dopamine turnover was decreased in FCX and thalamus, whereas that of serotonin was unchanged in all regions. In conclusion, neurotransmitter metabolism in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop is severely impaired in the MK-801 (dizocilpine) NMDA receptor hypofunction animal model for schizophrenia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2011) 31, 976-985; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.193; published online 17 November 2010″
data showing the benefits of implantable DMH1 cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) insertion for primary prevention in populations at risk for sudden death, professional society guidelines
recommending primary prevention, and recognition by payers of the clinical value of ICDs in these populations, ICDs for primary prevention remain underused. We sought to determine whether implementing a screening tool would increase appropriate identification of patients showing clinical evidence of ICD benefit and prompt referral to an electrophysiologist for ICD implantation.\n\nMethods and Results-Screening tools were affixed to medical records for patients seen in 2 outpatient cardiology AG-120 solubility dmso offices that queried ejection fraction and whether referral to an electrophysiologist was made (N = 6632). The number of appropriate referrals in the screening period were compared with analogous data collected before implementation of the screening tool (control period) through retrospective record review (n = 3606). Significantly more eligible patients were offered referral during the screening period than during the control period at both sites, 80% (8/10 eligible) versus 33% (5/15) at site 1 (P < 0.02) and 100% (44/44) versus 60% (21/35) at site 2 (P < 0.001). Of all patients offered referral, 41% (32/78) accepted.\n\nConclusions-The use of a screening tool increases referral to electrophysiology for patients in whom placement of an ICD confers the benefit of sudden cardiac death primary prevention. Barriers to referral include both physician and patient factors.