4b, lane 4) Overexpression of STY1365 induced by IPTG from pRP01

4b, lane 4). Overexpression of STY1365 induced by IPTG from pRP010 showed a slight Gemcitabine purchase difference in band intensity of OmpF and OmpC compared with the wild-type strain (lane 5). No significant difference was observed with ΔSTY1365 strain when tested for the crystal violet uptake and outer membrane protein profile. Moreover, strains carrying the empty vector pSU19 or the vector pCC1 induced or not by IPTG showed no differences in uptake of crystal violet (data not shown). Holins have been described extensively in bacteriophages, >50 unrelated protein families having been reported (Young, 2002). Because of the enormous diversity, location and characterization

of holin-like protein-coding genes in bacterial genomes has been difficult (Damman et al., 2000; Wang et al., 2000; Real et al., 2005; Anthony et al., 2010). Nevertheless we found some features of holin in STY1365 of S. Typhi by structural analysis of its sequence. Although it was not found a typical dual-start motif in the predicted amino acid sequence of STY1365, this result is not unusual because many holins lack this motif (Bläsi & Young, 1996; Farkasovska et al., 2004). Our experimental evidence reported in this work does not allow us to establish a full-holin activity to this small ORF of S. Typhi. Bacterial holins have been associated with an endolysin gene located adjacent to the holin gene, which

is not the case for STY1365 because both flanking ORFs are annotated as proteins without such endolysin function (Damman et al., 2000; Parkhill et al., Selleck OTX015 2001; Rice & Bayles, 2003; Delisle et al., 2006; Rodas et al., 2010). Moreover, overexpression of STY1365 showed growth impairment and alteration of the bacterial envelope, but

cell lysis was not observed as expected with overexpression of other holin genes (Loessner et al., 1999; Anthony et al., 2010; Rajesh et al., 2011). These evidences suggest that the protein encoded by STY1365 of S. Typhi has lost some but not all features associated with holins. Sequence analysis of STY1365 showed the presence of a premature stop codon (TGA) within its single PLEK2 TM domain, suggesting the disruption of this segment, and consequently this protein will not be inserted within the bacterial membrane. The frequency of use of TGA as a premature stop codon in bacterial genomes increases with the increase in GC content, a classical feature of genomic regions acquired by horizontal transfer (Wong et al., 2008). This is in accordance with the genomic location of STY1365, which is part of a genomic island (GICT18/1) with high GC content compared with whole genome of S. Typhi (Rodas et al., 2010). In addition, we detected the presence of a protein in the inner membrane of S. Typhi (∼17 kDa) consistent with the molecular weight of STY1365 protein product plus FLAG tag, suggesting that STY1365 is fully translated.

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