046) * (p = 0 019) PLA 623 (136) 633 (154) 636 (166) 657 (177) CR

046) * (p = 0.019) PLA 623 (136) 633 (154) 636 (166) 657 (177) CRT 679 (128) 695 (127) 724 (128) BI2536 713 (128) CEE 615 (93) 648 (97) 642 (111) 648 (97) Peak Power (W/kg)       * (p = 0.001) PLA 1171 (238) 1197 (313) 1174 (229) 1305 (256) CRT 1258 (243) 1208 (215) 1322 (214) 1326 (211) CEE 1107 (202) 1210 (181) 1196 (193) 1251 (174) Values are represented as means (± SD). * indicates a significant difference at the respective testing session (p < 0.05). Discussion The purpose of this study was to examine

the effects of Torin 1 creatine ethyl ester supplementation in combination with heavy resistance training for 47 days compared to supplementation with creatine monohydrate and a placebo. Following a 5-day loading phase and a 42-day maintenance phase, creatine ethyl ester was examined for changes in Selleck LOXO-101 muscle strength and mass, body composition changes, serum creatine and creatinine levels, and muscle total creatine content. Serum and Muscle Creatine Studies have shown the acute ingestion of 5 g and 20 g of creatine monohydrate to increase serum levels of creatine [5]. The recommended loading and maintenance dosages

for creatine ethyl ester are 10 g and 5 g, respectively. As a result, in the present study participants ingested twice the recommended dose of creatine ethyl ester, yet the CRT group resulted in significantly higher levels of serum creatine than the CEE group (Figure 1). Total muscle creatine for the CRT group was significantly greater than the PLA group, but not the CEE group. However, in light of ingesting twice the recommended CYTH4 dose of creatine ethyl ester, total muscle creatine

concentration for the CEE group was not significantly different from either the PLA or CRT groups (Figure 2). There was a significant increase in total muscle creatine levels for the CRT at day 6 and 27; however, for CEE an increase was observed to occur at day 27. This is in agreement with most other studies showing significant increases in muscle creatine [3, 20–22]. Serum Creatinine For serum creatinine, the CEE group underwent significant increases compared to the PLA and CRT groups at days 6 and 48 (Figure 3). In the CEE group, creatinine levels increased 3-fold after the loading phase, and continued to be elevated above normal values throughout the study. This observation can likely be based on the premise that creatine ethyl ester has been shown to be degraded to creatinine in stomach acid (Tallon). Creatinine levels for the CRT group did elevate, but stayed within the normal range of 0.8–1.3 mg/dL, while the PLA group stayed near baseline levels. Serum creatinine is of importance because creatinine is the by-product of creatine degradation. Creatine is non-enzymatically converted into creatinine at approximately 1.7% daily for a typical 70 kg individual [23]. Creatine is also degraded by the gut into creatinine at an estimated rate of 0.1 g of a 5 g dose per hour.

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