This slow loss of seagrass may go unnoticed against a shifting ba

This slow loss of seagrass may go unnoticed against a shifting baseline through time. Global climate change will exacerbate these impacts (see Plate 1), especially for meadows that lack ecological resilience; a major challenge to those scientists providing coastal management advice or modeling future trajectories. In 2012 many members of the international seagrass

scientific community attended the 10th International Seagrass Biology Workshop in Brazil. This workshop series commenced in Japan around 20 years ago to stimulate global discussion on directions for seagrass research and to increase understanding Selleckchem Navitoclax of the services provided by healthy seagrass ecosystems (Coles et al., 2014). This conference series sponsored the compilation of a global seagrass methods book in 2001 (Short and Coles, 2001) development of the World Seagrass Association Inc. in 2002; an

atlas of seagrass distribution in 2003 (Green and Short, 2003) along with development of a seagrass red list (Short et al., 2011), global monitoring programs and a seagrass research discussion list – the Seagrass Forum. At the 2012 ISBW meeting to stimulate ongoing initiatives and to build on this record it was proposed to invite the seagrass community to submit manuscripts to a special journal edition of the Marine Pollution Bulletin. The aim was to capture recent science results specifically in the areas of understanding change GSK1120212 cell line and resilience in a world whose climate has become less predictable. The emphasis Evodiamine would be on indirect impacts, trophic connections and the interaction of seagrass systems with climate change parameters in line with the philosophy of the Marine Pollution Bulletin. The fifteen manuscripts submitted range over a variety of topics associated with the title and theme of the edition – “Seagrass meadows in a globally

changing environment”. Monitoring change in seagrass meadows at a global scale is a challenge in itself. The last 20 years has seen the development of number of programs responding to this resulting in three papers in the special edition that document long term regional and local changes in seagrass communities around the world from Europe (Potouroglou et al., 2014) to the Western Pacific including Australia (Short et al., 2014), and Singapore (Yaakub et al., 2014a and Yaakub et al., 2014b). Understanding what parameters are important for assessing seagrass in monitoring programs is critical to this effort; the papers by Christiaen et al., 2014 and Zhang et al., 2014 help answer some of these issues by examining the use of nitrogen isotopes and nitrogen ratios for understanding the influences of the urban and agricultural environment and signals in nearby seagrass meadows.

A fixed number of cells were inoculated on each of the agar plate

A fixed number of cells were inoculated on each of the agar plates containing various concentrations of vancomycin (abscissa). The plates were incubated see more at 37 °C for 48 h. Then the number of grown colonies were counted and plotted on the semi-logarithmic graph. Note that the precursor strain Mu3 with MIC 2 mg/L is distinct from VSSA strain ΔIP (MIC 1 mg/L). Whereas the growth of ΔIP is completely depressed by 2 mg/L of vancomycin, the minor proportions of cells of Mu3 grew up to 12 mg/L of vancomycin though the 99.999% of the entire cell population is depressed with 3 mg/L of vancomycin. This clearly showed

that Mu3 is composed of heterogeneous cell subpopulations with different levels of vancomycin resistance. Within the subpopulations grown on the agar plates containing 4 mg/L or greater concentrations of vancomycin, we identified VISA converted strains. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/pifithrin-alpha.html To distinguish Mu3 from VSSA, we classified it as a heterogeneously vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (hVRSA; now is called hVISA) [52]. VISA is generated by accumulation of several spontaneous mutations [33] and [34]. The VISA phenotype of Mu50, for instance, can be reconstituted in VSSA strain ΔIP by sequentially

introducing four mutations in the genes vraS, msrR, rpoB and graR (Katayama, Y. in preparation). The first couple of two mutations in vraS and msrR converted ΔIP into Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase a hVISA strain with a similar PA pattern with that of Mu3, then rpoB mutation converted the hVISA into VISA with vancomycin MIC 4 mg/L. Addition of graR mutation further increased vancomycin MIC to 8 mg/L. vraS is the sensor histidine kinase of two-component regulatory

systems (TCRS), which is known to up-regulate the genes in the cell-wall synthesis pathway in response to the exposure to cell-wall-acting antibiotics [35] and [36]. graR is a response regulator of another TCRS which is involved in resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) [37], [38] and [39]. msrR is considered to be involved in the production of wall-teichoic acid (WTA) [40] and [41]. The RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme is composed of five subunits as represented by α2ββ′ω. Remarkably, as many as 64% of VISA clinical strains possessed more than one mutation in rpoB gene encoding the β subunit of the RNAP core enzyme [42]. When introduced individually into vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus strain ΔIP, the above four mutations either increased vancomycin MIC slightly, (i.e, within the susceptible range), or changed the susceptible patterns of PA curves to those of hVISA. Besides the four genes described above, great number of different mutations and their combinations were found to raise vancomycin resistance of S. aureus. A single mutation incorporated in any of the 20 genes in diverse metabolic pathways was found to raise vancomycin resistance [33].

For LDR or PDR brachytherapy,

higher rates are associated

For LDR or PDR brachytherapy,

higher rates are associated with a higher prescribed dose of 65 Gy (27), whereas ulceration rates with 60 Gy are in the order of 12% (19). The risk is higher with tumors greater than 4 cm in diameter and with a larger number of needles. De Crevoisier et al. (27) have shown that two factors predictive of complications were dose rate higher than 0.6 Gy/h and treatment volume greater than 22 cm3. When using PDR, the dose rate INNO-406 can be adapted by increasing the pulse frequency and decreasing the pulse dose to keep the hourly dose rate at 0.6 Gy/h or lower. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can bring about speedy resolution of ulceration when more conservative measures fail, although a prolonged series of “dives” over 6–8 weeks is required (31). Meatal stenosis is reported in 9–45% (1), but is related to proximity of distal sources to the meatus. Crook et al. (19) reported Compound Library a rate of 9%, but routinely supplied patients with a commercially available meatal dilator to be used as required to deal with any impairment of urinary stream. This may be beneficial in preventing problematic scarring of the meatus. Brachytherapy provides excellent local control of T1–T2 penile squamous cell carcinoma (and selected T3 lesions), ideally smaller than 4 cm with no or minimal extension

onto the penile shaft. Circumcision preceding brachytherapy is essential. Penile conservation rates of 87% and 70% at 5 and 10 years, respectively, can be achieved with brachytherapy. Lymph node observation is appropriate for small (T1) well-differentiated tumors. Radiographic assessment and directed biopsies are warranted in moderate or poorly differentiated

SSR128129E or larger tumors. Although surgical management of positive or suspicious lymph nodes is preferred, EBRT is an option if the patient is not a surgical candidate. Because local recurrence can happen even after 5 years, extended followup is mandatory because both local and regional failures can be salvaged surgically. Meatal stenosis and soft tissue ulceration are the most common significant late effects, but can be effectively managed conservatively while retaining penis conservation. LDR and PDR 192Ir brachytherapy fractionation is well established with mature data in the literature. HDR 192Ir brachytherapy for penile cancer is under development. “
“Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) represents an adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) technique that allows the delivery of a biologically equivalent dose to the lumpectomy cavity compared with whole breast irradiation (WBI) delivering 50 Gy while shortening the overall RT course to 1 week or less. At this time, APBI can be delivered using multiple techniques including interstitial catheters, balloon or strut-based single-entry devices, intraoperative applicators, or external beam RT. With several series reporting more than 5 years of follow-up, APBI has been shown to be associated with clinical outcomes comparable with traditional WBI (1).

7 × 108 cells L− 1) in an estuarine area of the NW Adriatic durin

7 × 108 cells L− 1) in an estuarine area of the NW Adriatic during the summer ( Bernardi Aubry et al. 2006). Picocyanobacteria play a substantial role in nutrient-richer transitional ecosystems,

and they may even become the prevailing fraction of the phototrophic plankton at these sites ( Paoli et al. 2007). This suggests the potential use of picophytoplankton as a functional biomarker of the higher trophic status of coastal marine environments. Analysis of phytoplankton size-spectra has already been used as a tool in the evaluation of transitional water bodies in the Adriatic Sea, but it was limited to taxa within the INCB024360 purchase nano- and microphytoplankton size range ( Sabetta et al. 2008). However, the study by Bec et al. (2011) found differences between the relative and absolute importance of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic components among the picoautotrophs along the trophic gradient in Mediterranean coastal

lagoons. Those authors suggested that the numerical dominance of picocyanobacteria could reflect oligomesotrophic conditions in marine coastal waters. Because of their small size and high surface-to-volume ratios, these appear to be more competitive than picoeukaryotes and the larger phytoplankton in acquiring nutrients in resource-limited Sorafenib nmr systems. This dominance could be related to the ability of Synechococcus to acquire phosphorus when concentrations are very low (

Bec et al. 2011 and the references therein), because phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the whole Mediterranean Sea ( Siokou-Frangou et al. 2009), including Boka Kotorska Bay ( Krivokapić et al. 2011). Picoeukaryotic algae were recorded in the Bay in all seasons in small numbers, but as they contain more carbon per cell, their contribution was better reflected in terms of carbon biomass. The Oxymatrine stable but negligible importance of the picoeukaryotic contribution has been demonstrated in other studies in coastal transitional areas of the Adriatic Sea ( Vanucci et al. 1994). It has been reported that their relative importance with regard to abundance and biomass generally increases with increasing trophic status of the marine system, as they are the most competitive group among the pico- and nanophytoplankton ( Bec et al. 2011). This was not the case in our study, however; apparently, the Bay’s trophic status is still not high enough to promote their greater development. The dominant species in the phytoplankton assemblages found in this study display preferences for nutrient-rich conditions (Pucher-Petković and Marasović, 1980 and Revelante and Gilmartin, 1980) and are found in higher abundances in only a few moderately eutrophic environments in the Adriatic Sea (Cetinić et al., 2006 and Bosak et al., 2009).

1 fold higher than moojenin The crude venom coagulated bovine pl

1 fold higher than moojenin. The crude venom coagulated bovine plasma in 14 s (±1.3 s) while moojenin coagulated the plasma in 44 s (±1.6 s). We also tested the effects of several inhibitors on the coagulant activity of moojenin. Incubation of the isolated enzyme for 15 min at 37 °C with EDTA, 1,10 phenanthroline or β-mercaptoethanol inhibited its coagulant activity by 48, 100 and 66%, respectively. These results suggest that moojenin belongs

to the metalloproteinase class and that disulfide bridges are important for coagulant activity. Our results showed that moojenin (50 μg) rendered the blood uncoagulatable when administered to mice. Moojenin acts in vivo apparently by selleck chemical depleting circulating fibrinogen. These data suggest the potential use of this enzyme as an anticoagulant for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of thrombotic disorders. In addition, our results showed that the moojenin does not cause hemorrhage in mice with doses up to 50 g (data not shown). Myotoxicity is very common in Bothrops envenoming, and is generally associated with other local effects as hemorrhage, edema and pain ( Nishioka and Silvera, 1992). Several myotoxic components have been isolated from Bothrops snake venom, such as the metalloproteinases BaH1 ( Gutiérrez et al., 1995), Bhalternin ( Costa et al., 2010)

and BleucMP ( Gomes et al., 2011). Histological examination showed relevant morphological alterations in skeletal muscle and hepatic tissues induced by moojenin. The myonecrosis induced by moojenin was

mainly characterized by extensive altered cell morphology and inflammatory reaction. AC220 manufacturer Fig. 4B shows light micrographs of sections of mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Moojenin caused Bupivacaine intense myonecrosis evidenced by disorganized myofibrils, abundant inflammatory infiltrate (mainly polymorphonuclear cell infiltration) and fatty degeneration. The systemic effects of bothropic snakebites are frequently associated with haemorrhagic, coagulant and proteolytic activities that result in inflammatory processes and tissue destruction, triggering systemic failure (Warrell, 1995; Teibler et al., 1999). To evaluate the systemic effects, the mice were injected i.p. with moojenin (50 μg) and the heart, lung, liver and kidney were dissected out and analyzed histologically. Fig. 4E shows light micrographs of hepatic tissue evidencing necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate in central regions of the tissue induced by moojenin. Control groups did not show changes. In the lung, kidney and heart, moojenin did not induce histological alterations. We also investigated the involvement of moojenin in hyperalgesic and edematogenic responses. Intraplantar injection of moojenin (50 μg) into the rat hind-paw did not cause statistically significant edematogenic or hyperalgesic effects, compared to initial values (data not shown). These results indicate that moojenin does not participate in the genesis of these phenomena.

5 is an advanced topic), and not precisely correctly One may gue

5 is an advanced topic), and not precisely correctly. One may guess that other popular programs have similar characteristics, this website but I am not aware that any systematic testing has been done, so using any of them involves investing more confidence in the competence of the programmer than is wise. It is possible to decrease the dependence on assumptions about whose truth or otherwise there is little or no information,

either by using distribution-free methods (Cornish-Bowden and Eisenthal, 1974) or by using internal evidence in the data to suggest the most appropriate weighting scheme for least-squares analysis (Cornish-Bowden and Endrenyi, 1981). The former approach is easy to apply to Michaelis–Menten data, but computationally inconvenient for

equations of more than two parameters; the latter is readily generalizable. However, neither of them, as far as I know, Selleck AZD4547 has been incorporated into commercial programs in current use. I have discussed these questions in more detail elsewhere (Cornish-Bowden, 2012). For any set of observed rates v  , a program finds the parameter values for which the weighted sum of squared differences ∑w(v−v^)2 between the observed values v   and the calculated values v^ is a minimum. If the rates are known to have uniform standard deviation then each weight w   is set to 1; if they are known to have uniform coefficient of variation they should be weighted according to the true values, but as these are always unknown one must use calculated values as the best estimates, i.e., w=1/v^2. intermediate and other weighting schemes are also possible, but commercial programs usually make no provision for these. In introducing proper Branched chain aminotransferase methods of statistical analysis to enzymology, Wilkinson (1961) used the following series of (a  , v  ) pairs to illustrate the method he proposed: (0.138, 0.148); (0.220, 0.171); (0.291, 0.234); (0.560, 0.324); (0.766, 0.390); (1.46, 0.493). This example allows a simple test of whether a commercial program actually calculates what it is claimed

to calculate. For a uniform standard error it should give K^m=0.59655, V^=0.69040 and for a uniform coefficient of variation it should give K^m=0.51976, V^=0.64919 (the circumflexes indicate that these are least-squares values). SigmaPlot 11.2 gets the first calculation correct, for example, but for the second it gives K^m=0.5519, V^=0.6632 which is not correct. The discrepancy is within experimental uncertainty, of course, and has little practical importance, but it still illustrates the important point that one cannot assume that the authors of commercial programs really understand what they are trying to do. I have discussed elsewhere ( Cornish-Bowden, 2012) how they could have obtained such a result. It would be interesting to make similar studies of the results given by other widely used commercial programs, but as far as I know this has not been done.

From Table 4, it is evident that the

immunoassays from la

From Table 4, it is evident that the

immunoassays from laboratory 7 are giving lower estimated potencies for all three samples A – C. Laboratory 2 has estimates that are higher than other laboratories for samples A and B, but for sample C they are in agreement with the other laboratories. Apart from these results, all laboratories appear to be giving consistent results and are in reasonable agreement. The within-laboratory, between-assay, variability is shown in Table 4, as %GCVs. These represent good within laboratory repeatability, with all GCVs less than 10%, and the majority being less than 5%. There was greater variability between estimates from individual plates within PS-341 manufacturer assays in some laboratories (data not shown). This appeared to result from possible plate effects (variation in response across different rows or columns of the plate). Because a balanced layout was used, varying the position of the samples across different plates, consistent results were obtained when the individual plate estimates were combined to give single assay estimates. However, it does emphasise the need to be aware of potential plate effects, and the importance this website of using a suitable experimental layout across plates. Samples A and B are duplicates of the same material (86/500). The average within-assay % differences in potency

estimates between duplicates are shown in Table 5. All but one of the laboratories are achieving average agreement within 10%, with the majority being within 5%. The overall geometric means of the laboratory means, along with between-laboratory %GCVs and the range of potency estimates are shown in Table 4. The overall trimmed mean (excluding the highest

and lowest laboratory estimates) are shown in Table 6. For the candidate standard 86/500, there is very little difference between the overall mean and the trimmed mean. The effects of the low results from laboratory 7 and the high results from laboratory 2 Bay 11-7085 on the overall mean cancel each other out. The combined overall mean for samples A and B is 202 IU based on all laboratories, or 203 IU based on the trimmed mean of the central 8 laboratories. For sample C, the potency estimates are around 20% higher than for A and B, at 236 IU and 242 IU for the overall and trimmed means respectively. Table 7 shows the overall means based on the 6 laboratories performing bioassay only. For the candidate standard 86/500 the mean is a little higher at 211 IU compared to the 201 or 203 IU from the overall or trimmed means of all laboratories. This is because restricting the calculation to the bioassays alone has the effect of removing the low results from the immunoassay of laboratory 7, but including the high results from the bioassay of laboratory 2. For sample C, there is little difference between the trimmed mean of all laboratories and the overall mean of the bioassays alone.

These results indicate that the direct effect of FGF23 on NaPi-2a

These results indicate that the direct effect of FGF23 on NaPi-2a protein expression in proximal tubules is dependent on the presence of Klotho at lower FGF23 concentrations, whereas rFGF23 concentrations of greater than 10 ng/ml elicit Klotho independent effects, at least to some extent. FGF23 is one of the most important endocrine regulators of phosphate metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the phosphaturic action of FGF23 is still unknown. The current study

has shown 1) that αKlotho is expressed at the mRNA and protein level in proximal tubules together with FGFR1, 3, and 4, 2) that FGF23 induces this website phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SGK1 in cultured proximal tubule

cells, 3) that the FGF23-induced downregulation of NaPi-2a expression in renal proximal tubular segments is SGK1 dependent, 4) that FGF23 signaling leads to serine phosphorylation of NHERF-1 in proximal tubular segments, 5) that FGF23 reduces membrane abundance of the NaPi-2a/NHERF-1 complex in vivo, and 6) that the presence of the co-receptor Klotho is essential for the FGF23-induced Selleck ABT 199 downregulation of NaPi-2a expression in renal proximal tubular segments at near physiological concentrations. Our data are in very good agreement with the study by Weinman and coworkers [23]. The latter authors recently reported that FGF23 increases phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cultured proximal tubular cells. In addition, they showed that proximal tubular cells from NHERF-1 null mice are resistant to the inhibitory action of FGF23 on phosphate transport, and that proximal tubular cells from NHERF-1 null mice infected with a mutated form of the NHERF-1 protein which cannot be phosphorylated at serine-77 do not respond to FGF23 treatment. By using a different approach, our study provides direct evidence that FGF23 induces phosphorylation of NHERF-1 in isolated proximal tubular segments, which is probably the best in vitro model of proximal tubular physiology

because the cells stay in their natural environment and do not lose polarity. In addition, we show that FGF23 downregulates membrane abundance of NHERF-1 in Silibinin vivo. Our finding that apical membrane abundance of NHERF-1 was profoundly reduced in mice 8 h after rFGF23 injection is in accordance with the known fact that PTH-induced phosphorylation of NHERF-1 leads to internalization and degradation of the NaPi-2a/NHERF-1 complex [21] and [22]. Taken together, our study and the study by Weinman et al. [23] provide compelling evidence that NHERF-1 is a downstream target of FGF23 signaling. The current study suggests that FGF23 acts directly on proximal tubular epithelium through its canonical, αKlotho and FGFR dependent, signaling pathway.

However, as one of the predicted carboxypeptidases A (contig 48)

However, as one of the predicted carboxypeptidases A (contig 48) has a predicted GPI-anchor, it is highly probable that the membrane-bound activity is a truly microvillar protein, whereas the soluble ones are released by microapocrine secretion. Six lipases are similar to pancreatic lipases and five are supposed

to be released by microapocrine secretion. One of the pancreatic lipases (contig 379) has a puzzling predicted transmembrane loop. Only one gastric lipase (contig 673) was found in microapocrine vesicles. Except for proteins thought to be part of the secretory machinery and transporters, other predicted proteins that are secreted by microapocrine secretion PLX-4720 concentration are listed in Table 4, in spite of lacking data on signal peptides. Most putative secretory proteins (aminopeptidase, selleck chemicals carboxyl esterase, prolyl carboxypeptidase, lipase, and

serine protease) are digestive enzymes with few proteins involved in protection and PM. The ATPases (contigs 435 and 500) are probably coding for proton pumps that acidify the vesicle contents as is usual in secretory vesicles (Alberts et al., 2008). The organic cation transporter (contig 631) may derive from the microvillar membrane, although there is no experimental support for this claim. Predicted proteins that are supposed to be involved in the secretory machinery are listed in Table 2 and Table 4. The predicted proteins calmodulin, annexin, myosin 7a and, gelsolin 1 are not anchored. They might be recovered in the microvillar membrane preparations

because putatively they associate with membranes or with cystoskeleton elements found contaminating the preparations. Calmodulin, annexin, myosin Olopatadine 7a, and gelsolin 1 putatively interplay in the microapocrine secretory process of digestive enzymes described in S. frugiperda midgut ( Ferreira et al., 1994, Jordão et al., 1999, Bolognesi et al., 2001 and Ferreira et al., 2007) but further work is necessary to settle this subject. This work was supported by the Brazilian research agencies FAPESP (Temático) and CNPq. We are indebted to W. Caldeira, and M.V. Cruz for technical assistance. W. Silva is a doctoral fellow of CAPES. C. Ferreira and W.R. Terra are staff members of their respective department, research fellows of CNPq, and members of the Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular. “
“The juvenile period is a time of intensive nutrient uptake that supports insect growth and transition to adult morphology and metabolism. Food ingestion is specially intense among Lepidoptera as their feeding is mainly restricted to plants, which are a poor sources of nutrients (Dow et al., 1987 and Klowden, 2007). During digestion, nutrients are mobilized by a set of hydrolases (Terra and Ferreira, 2005 and Terra and Ferreira, 1994) and posteriorly absorbed by several transporters (Meleshkevitch et al., 2006 and Meleshkevitch et al., 2009) using the so-called “voltage strategy” (Harvey and Okech, 2010).

Gene 1-FEH-A was associated with grain yield, and 1-FEH-B was ass

Gene 1-FEH-A was associated with grain yield, and 1-FEH-B was associated with thousand kernel weight and test weight [10]. In sunflower, HaCOI1-1 and HaCOI1-2 were found to be strongly associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance [11]. In waxy rice, Xu et al. [12] associated starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SSII-3) and SSI with starch properties. As these examples illustrate, AM is useful for dissecting

Epacadostat solubility dmso candidate genes underlying complex traits. In cotton, some AM studies have been reported [5], [13], [14], [15] and [16], but these were all genome wide association studies (GWAS) rather than candidate gene association studies. Expansin refers to a family of closely related non-enzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in

plant cell growth, emergence of root hairs, meristem function, and other developmental processes in which cell wall loosening occurs. The elongation of cotton fiber is associated with the expression of many genes, among which Expansin is one of the most highly expressed [17], [18] and [19]. That Expansin may control Thiazovivin chemical structure fiber development is of interest in strategies aimed at improving fiber quality, because final fiber length and strength largely determine the quality of commercial cotton thread. Given that Expansins play a pivotal role in cell wall extension, they are attractive targets for strategies designed to alter cell shape and size, and this consideration led us to characterize some of the genes that encode Expansins in Gossypium. Six cDNAs encoding α-expansins were identified in a previous study of cotton fiber development [18]. RT-PCR expression

analysis showed that the mRNA from GhExp2 was specific to cotton fibers, where it was the second most abundant transcript (at a low level) during the elongation phase of fiber development [18]. Intron and exon sizes of GhExp2 were all different from those of the other five genes. In GhExp2, a Cys → Arg substitution at the first Cys [a residue conserved in most α-expansins previously described [20]] was found, and the Phe [which commonly is contained in a His-Phe-Asp (HFD) domain] residue had been replaced by Lys. But, the amino acid sequence Elongation factor 2 kinase derived from GhExp2 was most closely related (with 97% sequence identity) to that from GhExp1, which may play an important role in cell wall extension during fiber development [18]. It is still unclear whether the nucleotide diversity of GhExp2 is associated with phenotypic variation. After sequence alignment of six genes (GhExp1–GhExp6) and AY189969 (expansin mRNA), gene-specific primers were designed to amplify only Exp2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the nucleotide and haplotype diversity and the extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the Exp2 gene, and then to validate the association between Exp2 and fiber quality by AM, and identify the most favorable allele of Exp2, with the aim of providing knowledge for future fiber quality breeding efforts in cotton.