Mechanistic studies re vealed that CB SCs displayed the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 that protects CB SCs against the cytotoxic effects of monocytes, allowing them to survive and proliferate. To further explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the cyto toxic effects of monocytes on CB SCs, we found that CB SCs expressed TNF RII but not TNF RI. Recombinant TNF showed cytotoxicity next to CB SCs Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries at dif ferent doses. Notably, CB SCs pre treated with TNF RII mAb at a ratio of 1 10 could markedly block the toxic action of monocytes and protect 50% of CB SCs with good cell Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries viability and morphology. To further explore the immune modulation of CB SCs on monocytes, LPS stimulated purified CD14 monocytes were co cultured with CB SCs.
Real time PCR array showed that co culture with CB SC could significantly down regulate numbers of LPS stimulated, inflammation related genes, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries including chemokines, multiple cytokines and matrix metallopeptidase, along with signaling pathway molecule NF B. These data clearly indicate that in vitro co culture with CB SCs causes substantial down regulation of inflammation associated gene expres sions in monocytes. Previous work showed that CB SCs function as immune modulators on lymphocytes via nitric oxide production. To confirm the action of NO involved in the immune modulation of CB SCs on mono cytes, the specific inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1400W was applied to the co culture system. The data demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of CB SC on LPS stimulated monocytes could be significantly reversed in the presence of iNOS inhibitor 1400W.
Interestingly, we found that blocking NO production in CB SCs could markedly increase the expressions Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of che mokine CCL20 and cytokines in monocytes. Thus, it indicates that CB SC derived NO plays an Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries essential role in the im mune modulating and anti inflammatory effects of CB SCs on monocytes. Discussion Insulin resistance is the hallmark of T2D. It is widely ac cepted that the inability of pancreatic B cells to function in compensating for insulin resistance leads to the onset of clinical diabetes. Persistent metabolic stresses inclu ding glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, chronic metabolic in flammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, cause progressive dysfunction of islet B cells and finally lead to the cellular death and absolute shortage of islet B cells in long standing T2D subjects.
The current phase 12 study demonstrates the safety and therapeutic efficacy of Stem Cell Educator therapy in the treatment of T2D. Insulin sensitivities were markedly in creased after receiving Stem Cell Educator therapy, followed by the significant improvement of metabolic controls in these long standing T2D patients. Notably, we found that T2D subjects in www.selleckchem.com/products/Tubacin.html Group C significantly improved fasting C peptide levels and B cell function.