64 The layer-specific changes in neuronal density and size identified in mood disorders implies that both inhibitory local circuit selleck compound neurons and excitatory projection types of cortical neurons may be involved in the neuropathology of mood disorders. Nonpyramidal inhibitory neurons using GABA are localized mainly in cortical layer II and establish local cortico-cortical connections Calcitriol solubility within or between adjacent functional columns of cortical cells. In contrast, pyramidal glutamatergic excitatory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neurons reside predominantly in cortical layers III, V, and VI and give rise to long projections
to other cortical associational regions (layer III), striatum (layer V), and thalamus (layer VI). Neuronal pathology detected in cortical layers III, V, and VI of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in MDD may be associated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with the pathology of excitatory
pyramidal neurons within these laminae that use glutamate as their neurotransmitter. Moreover, the density of pyramidal neurons Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is selectively reduced in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in subjects with BPD,4 further confirming the pathology of glutamatergic neurons in mood disorders. These findings in postmortem brain tissue coincide with an in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in the anterior cingulate cortex revealing a reduction in glutamate levels in depression.65 There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence that antidepressant drugs directly or indirectly reduce the function
of N-methyl-D-aspartate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (NMDA) glutamate receptors.66 Depression-related decreases in glutamate levels or the density of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons may alter in cortex and elsewhere the glutamatergic recognition site and its coupling to the NMDA receptor complex. One study of suicide victims, some of whom were diagnosed with MDD, reveals changes in the glutamatergic recognition site and its coupling to the NMDA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical receptor complex in the anterior prefrontal cortex.67 Interestingly, drugs that reduce glutamatergic activity or glutamate receptor-related signal transduction may also have antimanic effects.66 Reductions in size and density of layer II neurons in the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as reductions in the density of Batimastat nonpyramidal neurons in layer II of the anterior cingulate cortex suggest deficient GABAergic neurotransmission. Most nonpyramidal neurons in cortical layer II colocalize GABA and recent clinical evidence suggests that MDD is associated with decreased levels of cortical GABA.11 In summary, the localization of morphological abnormalities in the mood disorders occurs in prefrontolimbic circuits that arc likely to regulate emotional, cognitive, and somatic symptoms in depression.