50 > BMI

50 > BMI read FAQ > 24.99) according to WHO classification (WHO, 2004). Likewise, in case of weight/height indices, mean body fat percentage recorded in climbers was comparable to this observed in untrained students and amounted to 15.4%. However, when classified by Heath-Carter somatotype components, endomorphy component that reflects adiposity had the lowest contribution in climbers�� somatotype; the mean value being significantly (p<0.001) lower than that observed in untrained students (2.4 �� 0.79 vs. 3.6 �� 1.48, respectively). Regardless of comparable body height, climbers had significantly greater arm span and arm length (by about 6 and 2.5 cm, respectively) what was reflected in ape index and arm length index, the respective values being by about 1.5 (p<0.001) and 0.6 SD (p<0.

01) greater than observed in untrained students, respectively. Additionally, climbers exhibited significantly greater values in arm (32.7 �� 2.09 vs. 30.9 �� 2.52 cm) and forearm circumferences (28.3 �� 1.28 vs. 26.02 �� 1.80 cm) and in upper extremity girth index, while no differences were found for elbow width. On the other hand, climbers had by 1 SD (p<0.001) lesser knee width while no between-group differences were found for calf circumference. Moreover, climbers exhibited by about 1 SD less in pelvis-to-shoulder ratio comparing to untrained students. Likewise, for upper extremities climbers had significantly (p<0.05) longer lower limbs as expressed by the Manouvrier��s index. In order to reveal possible relationships between somatic indices and subjects�� climbing ability, Pearson��s correlation coefficients and partial correlations were calculated.

Apart from the obvious relations between the body fat and weight-to-height indices or between indices pertaining to the length of upper limb, significant negative correlations were found only for %FAT and ape index (?0.594; p<0,01) and for arm circumference index and BMI (r = ?0.497; p<0.05) or RI (r = ?0.587; p<0.01). Self-reported climbing ability significantly correlated with %FAT (r = ?0.614; p<0.01); besides that, no significant correlations with somatic indices were noted and none of the partial correlations proved significant. Only the ape index tended to correlate with the self-reported climbing ability (r = 0.397; p = 0.083). Discussion Despite the growing number of reports on rock climbing, those concerning anthropometric characteristics of climbers are rather scarce and inconsistent.

The results of this study do not support the view of Watts et al. (2003) that climbers are small in stature with low body mass as no differences between the climbers and untrained controls were found for basic Entinostat somatic features and body size-related indices. Body height and body mass of climbers were rather average and amounted to 180.0 cm and 70.7 kg, respectively, what was in line with the observations of Billat et al. (1995) and Grant et al.

2c) Four seconds after the initial MVC, PT was 62 6 �� 10 8 Nm,

2c). Four seconds after the initial MVC, PT was 62.6 �� 10.8 Nm, a 45 �� 13% increase compared to the pre-MVC value (Figure 2a). There was a sharp decline in PT in the following 60 s so that PT after 2 min was not kinase inhibitor KPT-330 significantly different (p>0.05) from the pre-MVC PT (Figure 2a). However, PT returned to baseline pre-MVC value only after 6 min. Figure 2 Time decay of PT (a), RTD & CT (b), and RR & ?RT (c) after a 5 s MVC in response to electrical stimulation reported as % change from unpotentiated values for study 1. * p< 0.05 for unpotentiated values. PT, peak twitch ... RTD and RR increased significantly (p<0.05) by 53 �� 13% and 50 �� 17%, respectively, immediately after the MVC whilst CT and ?RT were unchanged for the duration of the experiment (Figures 2b and and2c).2c).

RTD and RR returned to the pre-MVC values within 3 min after the initial MVC. The decay in PT was associated with a progressive fall in the RTD and in the RR (Figures 2b and and2c).2c). Correlation between PT vs RTD, PT vs RR and PT vs CT was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.001), 0.98 (p<0.001) and 0.56 (p<0.01), respectively, during the 10 min period after the MVC. EMD did not change at any time during this section of the experiment (data not shown). Study 2 Unpotentiated muscle: Torque response to repeated SS over 1 min SS torque response to the first 6 episodes of electrical stimulation (Figure 1c) delivered to the unpotentiated muscle in the min prior to the first MVC did not differ from each other (p>0.05) and the mean values did not differ from those of study 1. Mean values for PT, EMD, CT, ?RT, RTD and RR were respectively 43.

5 �� 12.9 Nm, 34.2 �� 3.1 ms, 85.9 �� 9.5 ms, 80.3 �� 10.5 ms, 0.52 �� 0.18 Nm/ms and 0.56 �� 0.21 Nm/ms (Table 2). Table 2 Responses of single stimulus at specific time points at rest for study 2 (n= 6) Potentiated muscle: Torque response to repeated SS after 10 MVCs PT immediately (4 s) after the first MVC (MVC 1) was increased by 56 �� 10% (Figure 3a) to 67.0 �� 17.7 Nm. PT immediately after MVCs 2�C10 was not different (p>0.05) from PT immediately after MVC 1 (Figure 3a). Figure 3 Time decay of PT (a), RTD & CT (b) and RR & ?RT (c) after a 5 s MVC in response to electrical stimulation reported as % change from unpotentiated values for study 2. * p< 0.05 from MVC 1. Other values were not different ... PT then decayed from 4�C45 s after each MVC so that at 16 s after MVC 1, PT fell significantly (p<0.

001) from the 4 s value PT, but PT was still 29 �� 7% above the unpotentiated value after 45 s. Interestingly the following MVCs showed similar PT at 4 s after MVC, but PT was significantly (p<0.05) higher 30 and 45 s after MVC 2 and 8, 12, 16, 30 and 45 s after MVC 5 and 10 compared to MVC 1, indicating a slower decay Dacomitinib of PT (Figure 3a). In addition PT at 45 s after the first MVC was significantly lower (p<0.05) than were the values 45 s after any of the following MVCs (2�C10).

Statistical analysis After sphericity assumption was verified wit

Statistical analysis After sphericity assumption was verified with the Mauchly test, a repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to detect the exercise and intensity effects in RPE and its interaction. Linear regressions were used to investigate the precision of EC prediction as a function of RPE. The standard error of the regression (Sy.x) was used a measure selleckchem of the goodness of the fit. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Science, Chicago, USA) and the graphics designed with Sigma Plot 10.0 (SPSS Science, Chicago, USA). Data are presented as means and standard deviations. A minimum level of significance of P �� 0.05 was adopted. Results The loads that were used in each exercise and the duration of each bout are presented in Table 1.

When assessing the variations in RPE (see values also in Table 1) according to the four exercises and to the different loads, a general effect was identified for both independent variables. The RPE increased significantly with the exercise intensity (P=0,000; ��2=0.83) with an exception of the comparison between the first two bouts (12% vs. 16%). There were no significant differences between RPE in half squat and in bench press. The RPE during triceps extension was significantly higher compared to every other exercise and the RPE during Lat pull down was significantly lower when compared with every other exercise. Simple linear regressions were established to estimate the EC using RPE (Figure 2).Significant (p< 0,05) regression equations were noted for the bench press, triceps extension and lat pull down.

The linear regression that was obtained for the Half squat was not significant Figure 2 Simple regression analysis between energy cost (EC) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE): Lat Pull down (A), Bench Press (B) and Triceps Extension (C). Discussion The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of equations based on RPE obtained using the OMNI-RES to predict energy cost (EC) during low intensity resistance exercise (RE).The main finding of the present study was that EC can be accurately predicted from RPE during low intensity lat pull down, bench press and triceps extension in recreational body builders. Our results suggest that the accuracy of the prediction model based upon the half squat is not acceptable.

Generally, the RPE tended to be higher during triceps extension as compared with the remaining three exercises that were used in the present study. These results suggest that single-joint exercises result higher RPE than multiple joint exercises. This finding is consistent with Lagally et al. (2002b) who assessed RPE at intensities of 30 and 90% of 1RM in seven different exercises (both single-joint and multi-joint). Smolander et al. (1998), reported Batimastat similar differences in RPE in both young and old subjects performing single and multiple joint exercises. According to Hetzler et al.

99 years) They were all right-handed and able to perform first s

99 years). They were all right-handed and able to perform first serves. None of the participants played tennis outside the timetable for data collection during the research. All the participants provided informed consent according to the Declaration of Helsinki. The Extremadura University Ethical Committee ref 1 approved the procedure. Measures Product variables analyzed were stroke accuracy, measured by radial error (Robins et al., 2006), variable error, which represents serve errors made in respect of deviation from the serve target area, and the ball speed. Process variables (Table 1) were measured over the trajectory of the hand holding the racket along the antero-posterior (X), the transverse (Y), and the longitudinal (Z) axes.

With respect to non-linear variables, these give information about the structure and characteristics of the variability present in the time series. These time series were derived from the position of the hand holding the racket during its trajectory, from the beginning of the movement until the moment the racket hit the ball. Table 1 Dependent variables analyzed in the research. In each instant kinematic variable the standard deviation (SD) and the variation coefficient (CV) was analyzed Tasks, material and measurements Each tennis player performed 20 first serves. They were instructed to hit the ball with as much power and accuracy as they could, and to avoid sending the balls into the area known in tennis slang as the ��T�� (the line intersection which divides both service boxes from their respective service lines).

The ball bounce on the tennis court surface was video recorded in every serve (Sony HDR- HC3E). The video camera was set at a height of 3 meters and was positioned at the back of the court. In order to measure accuracy, a Visual Basic 5.0 application was developed (Menayo, 2010). This facilitated the calculation of real-space Cartesian coordinates for the ball bounces through a digitization process from the video recording of the serves. Non-linear kinematic variables were analyzed by using a software application created with Visual Basic 5.0, from an algorithm for calculating Approximate Entropy (Pincus, 1991). To measure ball speed, a radar gun (Sports Radar SR3600) was used. This radar device, which records the speed of moving objects with an accuracy of +/? 1 km/h, was positioned behind the tennis player, facing the direction of the stroke (Figure 1).

An electromagnetic motion tracking system Polhemus Fastrak? was used to record and analyze kinematic variables and this was connected to a computer (Toshiba Satellite 1900). This tracking system has 6 Degree-of-Freedom motion tracking sensors, with an accuracy of 0.08 cm for position (X, Y and Z Cartesian space coordinates) and 0.15 degrees for angular orientation (azimuth, elevation, and roll), and records at a frequency Brefeldin_A of 120 Hz. Figure 1 Automated measurement system.

For reference, 180 deg indicated full knee extension and normal s

For reference, 180 deg indicated full knee extension and normal standing position, respectively. The ankle in a neutral position was equal to 90 deg (angles 0�C90 deg indicated dorsiflexion selleck catalog and angles 90�C180 deg indicated plantarflexion). The raw EMG data were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and high-pass filtered at 10 Hz to eliminate movement artefacts, using a Butterworth fourth-order zero-lag filter. The onset/offset time selected from starting knee extension of the swinging leg to impact the ball. After removing the signal offset, the root mean square (RMS) was estimated from raw EMG signal data using a smoothing window. In each kick, we examined the (1) maximum RMS of RF, VM and VL muscles, (2) maximum knee angular velocity (KAV), (3) maximum ankle angular velocity (AAV), (4) maximum foot velocity (FV) and (4) maximum ball velocity (BV).

Foot velocity (Vfoot) was estimated as the velocity of the center of mass of the foot, which was calculated in each frame based on ankle and toe marker data. The mechanics of collision between the foot and ball were analyzed as suggested by Lees and Nolan (1998). Particularly, the resultant ball velocity (Vball) was calculated from V foot as follows: vball = 1.23 �� vfoot + 2.72 The Pre-stretching and Post-stretching values for each protocol were averaged across days and therefore for each participant there were four values: pre- and post- static stretching and pre- and post-dynamic stretching ones. Subsequently, in each variable, the percentage differences between pre- and post- stretching protocol were calculated and compared between protocols.

Statistical Analysis A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare relative changes in each dependent variable between static and dynamic stretching. The level of significance was set at p �� 0.05. When justified, paired sample t-tests were performed to confirm significant changes within each condition. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated and are also reported. The power was �� 0.94 and the test�Cretest reliability values for the testing order of tests ICCRs (intraclass correlation reliability) were �� 0.97. Results An example of EMG raw data of RF, VL, and VM activity after different acute stretching methods is illustrated in Figure 2. The descriptive results of raw EMG and KAV data are presented in Table 2 while mean group values are presented in Figure 3.

The ANOVA showed a statistically significant higher increase in RF EMG (Figure 3) after dynamic stretching (37.50% �� 9.37%) versus a non-significant (?8.33% �� 3.89%) decrease after static stretching (p = 0.015) (ES �� AV-951 0.94). Similarly, VL EMG increased after dynamic stretching (20% �� 10.21%) but it decreased (?6.60% �� 8.77%) after static stretching (p = 0.004) (ES �� 0.98). There was also a statistically significant increase in VM EMG after dynamic stretching (12.00% �� 6.29%) as opposed to a decrease (?12.00% �� 5.

Biodegradable materials for biomedical applications should not on

Biodegradable materials for biomedical applications should not only have appropriate Volasertib PLK mechanical and biodegradation properties, but also good interactions with the surrounding tissues of the implantation site. Indeed, the biological response is mainly influenced by the surface properties of the biomaterial. Therefore, incorporation of biologically active molecules, such as proteins or peptides, on the surface of biomaterials is recognized as a promising strategy to improve the bioactivity of the materials employed in the medical field.11,12 In order to obtain a stable protein layer, the biomolecule should be covalently bonded on the surface of the material. However, PLCL copolymers do not have any reactive groups in their chemical structure for further covalent attachment of proteins.

Thus, they should be functionalized, which is a major challenge for this kind of material. Indeed, special care has to be taken when trying to modify the surface of biodegradable polymers showing glass transition temperatures similar to room or body temperatures such as the PLCL used in this work. Moreover, the functionalization should not affect the copolymer structural composition in order to keep all its initial properties. Among the numerous techniques described in literature for the introduction of reactive groups,13,14 surface modification by plasma treatment is the most adequate15,16 since it allows the efficient incorporation of functional groups onto the biomaterial surface without affecting their bulk properties (chain reorganization, crystallinity, faster degradation).

17,18 Regarding plasma treatments applied on biodegradable polymers, to our knowledge, no study on PLCL has been reported whereas such treatments have already been done on PLLA, poly(glycolide) (PGA), PLGA or PCL.19-22 In this work a terpolymer composed of ��-caprolactone (CL), D-lactide (D-LA) and L-lactide (L-LA) was used as base material and fully characterized in terms of molecular weight, molecular organization, chemical structure and mechanical properties before surface modification. The terpolymer functionalization was done under N2 and H2 atmospheric pressure plasma discharge. The amino groups created were used as the anchoring point for the covalent grafting of albumin by using a heterobifunctional crosslinker.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the surface modifications of the material. Finally, a hydrolytic degradation study of untreated terpolymer (PLCL), plasma modified PLCL (P-PLCL) and albumin grafted PLCL (BSA-PLCL) Carfilzomib in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 ��C was performed for a period up to 63 d. The changes in crystallinity, molecular weight and chemical composition of the samples were followed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and XPS.

The study design and protocol were accepted by the proprietors of

The study design and protocol were accepted by the proprietors of the community pharmacies. The study protocol and informed consent form were approved by the Institute Human Ethics Committee kinase inhibitor Idelalisib of Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical Sciences. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Fifty patients were interviewed, of whom 39 participants met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The literate (more than higher secondary level) and chronic diabetic patients (history of type 2 DM of more than 3 years) were included in the study and illiterate, children below 12 years of age, pregnant women, nursing mothers, type 1 DM patients and subjects with any other chronic disorders were excluded from the study.

Twenty of these participants were allocated randomly to the control group and 19 were allocated to the intervention group. Pharmacists had a discussion about the study with the eligible patients or their caregivers when prescriptions for diabetes medications were issued. Subjects were included if they had type 2 DM and gave informed consent. Patient background questionnaire The study participants completed a seven-item demographic questionnaire, providing information about their sex, age, marital status, education, income level, type of diabetes, length of time since diagnosis of diabetes and presence of other specific health problems. Diabetes Care Profile: An instrument of the study The data were collected using Diabetes Care Profile (DCP)??a questionnaire developed by J.J.

Fitzgerald of the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center (MDRTC), University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan. DCP Entinostat was developed as an instrument to assess social and psychological factors related to diabetes and treatment.[7,8] The questionnaire was translated into the local language, as is frequently done. The questionnaire was self-administered. It consists of 234 items including information on demography and self-care practices and 116 questions divided into 16 profile scales, including health status understanding, control problem and social and personal factors scales. The items were scored using a variable five-point Likert scale, in which 1 = good and 5 = poor,[9] and item scores were summed to gain a total score. Each scale was scored by summing certain item scores and dividing the sum by the appropriate number of items.

The interval between two visits was 2 months, and all the study subjects in the intervention group were interviewed a minimum of four times. DCP was performed in the 2nd and 8th months, and the results were compared. The study subjects were interviewed for a duration of 20?C40 min. Patients?? knowledge about diabetes and its management were tested at the baseline and final visits using Dovitinib clinical trial the MDRTC Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test Questionnaire. The questionnaire tests knowledge of 15 test items.

Only one study has reported progression of cognitively normal sub

Only one study has reported progression of cognitively normal subjects to more advanced disease. Morris and colleagues [70] performed 11C-PIB scans in 159 cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating selleck chemicals llc (CDR) 0) subjects that were part of a longitudinal aging study and reported that the relative risk of conversion from CDR 0 to AD (nine subjects) was increased almost five-fold in the presence of a positive 11C-PIB amyloid scan. A lesser, non-significant increase in risk was reported for conversion from CDR 0 to CDR 0.5 (n = 23). The primary weakness of studies using conversion/stage change as an endpoint is that the rate of conversion, particularly from healthy to MCI or AD, may be low and variable across subjects and studies, depending on recruiting centers and entry criteria.

Hence, three studies in cognitively normal aging elderly have looked instead at the relationship between PET amyloid binding and continuous measures, that is, change in objectively measured cognitive performance. Storandt and colleagues [62], working with essentially the same subject population as Morris and colleagues [70], found that concurrent cognitive performance was unrelated to 11C-PIB binding, but the estimated annual rate of cognitive deterioration, as evidenced by change in visuospatial and working memory performance composite scores, was significantly greater in subjects with an amyloid-positive 11C-PIB PET scan than in subjects with an amyloid-negative 11C-PIB scan. High amyloid binding on 11C-PIB scans was also associated with reduced regional brain volume on MRI, further suggesting that even in cognitively normal subjects (CDR 0) amyloid accumulation is not benign.

Villemagne and colleagues [71] imaged 34 elderly subjects that had been previously followed longitudinally for 6 to 10 years. On average, subjects with memory decline over the observation period had higher 11C-PIB retention; 7 of 11 subjects with elevated 11C-PIB retention showed memory decline, versus 4 of 23 subjects with normal 11C-PIB retention. Finally, Resnick and colleagues [67] obtained 11C- PIB PET images on 57 subjects who had been followed for an average of 10.8 years as part of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and found a significant correlation between 11C-PIB binding (DVR) and Mini Mental State Exam and verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test).

One weakness of the Storandt and Brefeldin_A colleagues [62], Villemagne and colleagues [71] and Resnick and colleagues [67] studies is that they rely primarily on retrospective www.selleckchem.com/products/Abiraterone.html analysis of cognitive decline. Although several groups have now reported that change in 11C-PIB binding is relatively slow, particularly in amyloid-positive subjects [40,51], it is difficult to judge from a retrospective analysis how early the 11C-PIB PET could have predicted subjects likely to show cognitive decline.

Protective factors for dementia and AD have

Protective factors for dementia and AD have inhibitor Tofacitinib also been identified; these include high education and socioeconomic status in early life as well as a number of factors in adult life: high work complexity, rich social network, social engagement, mentally stimulating activity, nonsmoking, and regular physical exercise [5,23,24]. Living with a partner during mid-life has been associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia later in life, suggesting that being in a relationship entails cognitive and social challenges that can increase the cognitive reserve [25]. Even at old ages, the active engagement in mental, physical, and social activities may postpone the onset of dementia, possibly by increasing the cognitive reserve [26].

In addition, several follow-up studies reported a decreased dementia risk associated with healthy dietary patterns and nutritional factors, such as high adherence to a Mediterranean diet or dietary intake of antioxidants (for example, vitamins E and C) and ??-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (often measured as fish consumption) [27-31]. Cumulative and combined exposure to different risk factors can lead to modified effects on dementia/AD risk (Table ?(Table1).1). In the Finnish CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Incidence of Dementia) study, the risk of dementia has been evaluated in relation to a score (CAIDE Dementia Risk Score) combining mid-life risk factors, including low education and cardiovascular factors (that is, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and physical inactivity).

The risk of dementia increased as the score increased in a dose-response trend, making it possible to identify individuals who can greatly benefit from preventive intervention Cilengitide that targets vascular risk factors [32]. Similar findings have been reported for late-life exposures: in the Swedish Kungsholmen Project, the cumulative effect of vascular risk factors and vascular diseases on dementia/AD risk has been investigated in people who are at least 75 years old. These factors were aggregated according to two pathophysiological hypotheses: the brain hypoperfusion profile, defined by chronic heart failure, low pulse pressure, and low diastolic pressure, and the atherosclerosis profile, which included high systolic pressure, diabetes mellitus or prediabetes, and stroke. In both profiles, dementia/AD risk increased with increasing scores in a dose-response table 5 manner, suggesting a synergy of vascular risk factors in promoting dementia/AD also in advanced age [33]. The American Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study developed a Late-life Dementia Risk Index and also a brief version, which groups older adults in the three categories of low, moderate, and high risk of developing dementia.

Another hypothesis is that thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is pr

Another hypothesis is that thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is primarily responsible for the development of ARD. Individuals with alcohol use disorders are at particularly high risk Carfilzomib mw of thiamine deficiency, not only from poor dietary nutrition but because alcohol directly compromises thiamine metabolism [16]. Thiamine deficiency can lead to Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE), an acute neurological disorder characterized by the clinical triad of oculomotor abnormalities, cerebellar dysfunction, and altered mental state and by the traditionally defined pathology of neuronal loss and hemorrhagic lesions in the paraventricular and periaqueductal grey matter. Not all individuals with WE show the triad of neurological symptoms, and the severity of signs is likely related to the extent of the underlying pathology [17].

To increase diagnostic accuracy of WE, refined operational criteria specify a minimum of two symptoms for diagnosis, a guideline recently endorsed by the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) [18,19]. Long-term outcomes of WE can include development of a syndrome of profound memory impairment – Korsakoff syndrome (KS) – that appears to be related to additional disruption to diencephalic and hippocampal circuitry. As KS shares similar pathological substrates and often follows an episode of WE, it is commonly referred to as the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome [1]. Increasing evidence suggests that the WKS encompasses a spectrum of pathological, neurological, and cognitive impairments resulting from thiamine deficiency [4].

The heterogeneity in presentation of the WKS, in combination with a lack of distinct pathological evidence for ARD, has led to the suggestion that cases of ARD are variants of the WKS [20]. Other evidence suggests that ARD and WKS are distinct disorders with overlapping clinical symptoms and associations such as peripheral neuropathology and ataxia [21]. The relationship of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome to alcohol-related dementia: pathophysiology In cases found to have WKS pathology at autopsy, the syndrome was correctly diagnosed in only around 20% of individuals prior to death [22]. Overlap with ARD has been noted, and it has been hypothesized that inactive (chronic) WE is likely to be the main underlying pathology GSK-3 in both KS and ARD [23,24].

Individuals with diagnosed KS and ARD show greater loss of neurons in the nucleus basalis than individuals selleck screening library with uncomplicated alcoholism, although this needs replication [25,26]. Graded deficits in regional brain volumes, in which ‘uncomplicated alcoholics’ demonstrate similar but less severe lesions than individuals with WKS (mammillary bodies, thalamus, cerebellar hemispheres, and vermis), also suggest that subclinical bouts of thiamine deficiency contribute to mild structural changes in alcohol-related disorders [17].