2006). Although transient selleck compound activation of the immune system and related sickness behaviors (e.g., decreased motility, increased fatigue and sleep, reduced appetite, increased sensitivity to pain, decreased kinase assay motivation or interest, decreased sexual activity, hyperthermia; Dantzer and Kelley 2007) may be adaptive in the context of acute infection, it is thought that chronic dysregulation of these immune factors, such as in the context of cytokine treatments for HCV or cancer (i.e., interferon-based therapies), may contribute to the development
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of long-term neuropsychiatric disorders and symptoms (McAfoose and Baune 2009; Loftis et al. 2010; Capuron and Miller 2011). Similarly, elevations of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]) and chemokines (e.g., RANTES [regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted]) are evidenced in patients diagnosed with a range of chronic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neuropsychiatric disorders including depression (Maes et al. 1995; Levine et al. 1999; Owen et al. 2001; Hestad et al. 2003; Loftis et al. 2008; Howren et al. 2009; Leonard and
Maes 2012), anxiety (Hoge et al. 2009; Hou and Baldwin 2012), chronic fatigue syndrome (Arnett and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Clark 2012), cancer-related fatigue and cognitive impairment (Meyers et al. 2005), pain disorders (Slade et al. 2011; Alexander Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2012), and age-related cognitive decline and dementia (Yaffe et al. 2004; Britschgi and Wyss-Coray 2009; Marksteiner et al. 2011; Corona et al. 2012). Collectively, these studies highlight the impact that immune activation and immune factor dysregulation (both peripherally and centrally) can have on central nervous system (CNS) function. Emerging evidence suggests that the HCV itself may directly contribute to increased Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical immune activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression in the CNS. Hepatitis C viral sequences and proteins have been found in brain macrophage/microglia
cells, and activation of these brain cells in HCV+ patients is associated with higher expression of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts for key immune activation cytokines (e.g., IL-1 and TNF-α) than in HCV− control patients (Wilkinson et al. 2010). When analyzing a Drug_discovery small panel of one or several blood immune factors, previous studies have revealed significantly increased levels of specific blood immune factor levels, including IL-6, IL-18, IL-10, IL-4, TNF-α, and RANTES, in untreated HCV+ adults compared with uninfected (HCV−) controls (Abayli et al. 2003; Vecchiet et al. 2005; Falasca et al. 2006; Grungreiff et al. 2009; Tawadrous et al. 2012). Moreover, in two small studies, peripheral immune factor levels were shown to be significantly associated with neuropsychiatric impairments in untreated HCV+ adults. Hilsabeck et al.