Fig. 1 shows paleochannel locations recognized from planview fluvial architectural elements, from visible satellite imagery (LANDSAT, SPOT, DigitalGlobe satellites), and identified from their topographic expression (Syvitski et al., 2012) as reconstructed check details from the SRTM topography (Fig. 2). Channel names (and their spelling) are from Holmes (1968), who applied forensic historical analysis to determine when these channels would have been most active. Holmes (1968) identified three channel patterns expressed within air photos (Fig. 1): circa 325 BC, 900 AD and 1600 AD. These dates represent generalized periods. Historical
maps were analyzed for their spatial geo-location error (Table 1), by digitally identifying towns on geo-referenced maps and comparing them to modern city locations. Maps earlier than 1811 did not have sufficient positioning detail to have their root-mean-square error determined. Few cities lasted across multiple centuries, in part because Indus River avulsions commonly left river settlements without water resources for drinking, agriculture, or transportation. [Note: Sindh towns often changed their spelling AG-014699 chemical structure and towns that were re-located sometimes kept their old name: see supplementary spelling data.] Pinkerton (1811; see suppl. matl.) notes that the Indus River
was navigable from the mouth to the province of Lahore, 900 km upstream for ships of 200 tons. At that time the Indus River system included an extensive set of natural overflow flood pathways across the Indus plain as indicated by Lapie (1829; see suppl. matl.). An SDUK 1838 map shows the Indus flowing on both sides of Bukkur, an island near Sukkur. The same map indicates that the Indus was typically 500 m wide, 12 m deep, with a flow of 1.5 m/s (∼4500 to 9000 m3/s) and rose 4 m during flood (i.e. ∼12,000 to 16,000 m3/s) – values that are similar to those of today. The Western Nara River, a northern offshoot course of the main Indus, originated near Kashmore (Fig. 1) in pre-historic time and later near Ghauspur (Panhwar, 1969). As the Indus moved west, this distributary was
Bumetanide 37 km north of Larkana by 1860 and only 15 km north by 1902, when it was converted into a canal (Panhwar, 1969). Johnston (1861; see suppl. matl.) shows the Eastern Nara River to be a viable secondary pathway of Indus water to the sea through a complex of river channels. In 1859, the Eastern Nara was converted into a perennial canal (Panhwar, 1969). The Indus adopted its present course west of Hyderabad in 1758 when the Nasarpur Course was deserted (Fig. 1) and discharge greatly decreased down the Eastern Nara (Fig. 1) (Wilhelmy, 1967 and Holmes, 1968). The Fuleti River, a significant discharge branch to the west of Hyderabad through the first half of the 19th century (SDUK, 1833 and Johnston, 1861; see suppl. matl.), became a spillway and occupied the channel of the former Ren River (Fig. 1).