The self-administered FACIT-CCSQ consists of 15 qualitative items

The self-administered FACIT-CCSQ consists of 15 qualitative items relating to the patient’s sellckchem experience of chemotherapy and treatment without time limitations (except one past week time-framed item) and eight items (quantitative criteria) relating to the patient’s use of health-care resources during the previous cycle. Most of the qualitative items were organised into three subscales related to chemotherapy convenience, concerns and satisfaction. Each scale and item was transformed into a scale ranging from 0 to 100. The FACIT-CCSQ was translated into the French language according to the FACIT procedure. MID The minimally important difference (MID) is defined as the smallest difference in score in the domain of interest that patients perceive as important, either beneficial or harmful, and that would lead the clinician to consider a change in the patient’s management (Guyatt et al, 2002; Yost et al, 2005b).

Considering the QLQ-C30, an MID of more than 10 points from baseline to a subsequent visit could be considered as being clinically significant (Osoba et al, 1998). Considering the FACIT-CCSQ, the MID was fixed at 6�C9 points for convenience, 7�C10 points for concerns and 5�C9 points for satisfaction subscales (Yost et al, 2005a). Statistical methods The ITT population included all randomised patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Two HRQoL sets were considered: QLQ-C30 set: defined as all ITT patients having an assessable QLQ-C30 (<50% of missing responses) at baseline, FACIT-CCSQ set: defined as all ITT patients having an assessable FACIT-CCSQ (<50% of missing responses) at baseline.

The number of required patients in the study was based on the demonstration of non-inferiority in terms of efficacy between the XELOX and FOLFOX-6 arms. The total number of patients needed for randomisation in the per-protocol population was defined as 137 persons per group. When considering that 10% of patients could be excluded from the study, an ITT population of (137 �� 2)/0.9=304 patients was required. The same number of patients was considered for the secondary objectives, including QoL and satisfaction assessments. Efficacy and safety assessments, as well as health economic results, are presented in detail in separate papers (Perrocheau et al, 2009; Ducreux et al, 2007).

At each assessment time, the 15 scales of the QLQ-C30 Cilengitide were computed and analysed in the QLQ-C30 set, whereas the items of the FACIT-CCSQ were analysed in the FACIT-CCSQ set. For both questionnaires, missing items were estimated according to their respective scoring manuals when feasible (Fayers et al, 2001; www.facit.org). For each item of both questionnaires, the baseline value and values at subsequent visits were provided for each study arm using descriptive statistics. The differences between arms were tested with an analysis of variance test.

Given the high rate of adoption of snus use observed in our study

Given the high rate of adoption of snus use observed in our study, future studies should determine the impact of snus marketing on awareness, attitudes and uptake in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption of all types among all age groups. Funding This work was supported by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (“type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”CA085739″,”term_id”:”34939046″,”term_text”:”CA085739″CA085739 selleck chemicals to P.F.S.). Declaration of Interests None declared.
Smoking cessation agents aimed at addressing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and cravings are psychotropic medications. As such, they may provide cues (e.g., symptom reduction, side effects) to participants that they indeed are receiving the active drug (Hughes & Krahn, 1985).

The felt effects of the active drug may be apparent and create greater expectancy for the therapeutic effects of the drug. Consequently, smoking cessation pharmacological clinical trials may be vulnerable to differential outcomes resulting from expectation bias. The properties of psychotropic drugs may limit researchers�� ability to control for participant expectations, introducing a potential confound that could impact the validity of the results. Conversely, a lack of expectation for the drug, as would occur if participants believed they were assigned to placebo, may serve to reduce the positive effect of expectancy on treatment outcome (Oken, 2008). As such, clinical trials are advised to assess perceptions of treatment assignment (Price, Finniss, & Benedetti, 2008) and whether these perceptions impact study outcomes (Hughes & Krahn, 1985).

Several nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) trials have reported participants�� perceived group assignment and examined the association between perceived assignment and smoking abstinence (Mooney, White, & Dacomitinib Hatsukami, 2004). However, only two studies investigated the impact of perceived treatment assignment on smoking abstinence in double-blind, randomized, clinical trials of bupropion (Schnoll et al., 2008; Thomas et al., 2008). Both trials included smokers who consumed at least 10 cigarettes per day (cpd). Thomas et al.��s sample was exclusively African American, whereas Schnoll et al.��s sample was predominantly White. In contrast to studies finding no relationship between perceived treatment assignment and smoking abstinence in NRT trials (Mooney et al., 2004), both bupropion studies found that perceiving bupropion assignment was positively associated with biochemically verified smoking abstinence at end-of-treatment and long-term follow-up even after controlling for actual treatment assignment. Their findings may indicate that participants�� expectations of receiving the active drug enhanced the treatment effect of bupropion.

61 The methylation profile of CD44 was found to be an independent

61 The methylation profile of CD44 was found to be an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence (associated with 9-fold increased risk). This finding, if validated in larger studies, may identify patients with aggressive cancer. The endothelin peptides consisting of three isotypes, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 have potent vasoconstructive properties thing and are differentially expressed in various cells and tissues.62 Two receptors for endothelin peptides (ETA and ETB) have been identified in various cells and tissues. Belonging to a family of hyptohelical G-protein-coupled receptors, they are differentially expressed during prostate cancer progression and also differ in binding the enothelin isotypes.63,64 ETA binds to two isotypes ET-1 and ET-2 only, whereas ETB binds to all three isotypes ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3.

63 In prostate cancer, expression of ETA is increased, whereas expression of ETB is reduced.65 Moreover, the ETB gene (EDNRB) is frequently methylated in prostate cancer samples, but to a less so in benign samples.66�C68 E-cadherin, a transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules, may function as a tumor suppressor gene in invasion and metastasis by mediating cell-cell adhesion via calcium-dependent interactions.69 In prostate cancer, expression of E-cadherin is decreased during tumor progression and this decreased expression has been correlated with hypermethylation of the promoter in patients biopsies.70,71 However, in metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone, E-cadherin expression is increased.

72 Interestingly, the promoter of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is found unmethylated in the metastatic prostate cancer cells.72 The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a multi-functional protein that acts as a tumor suppressor gene in familial adenomatous polyposis.73 It plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathway, cell migration, cell adhesion, and mitosis.74 In prostate cancer Dacomitinib development, APC hypermethylation has been observed in early cancer stages and in more than 30% of PIN samples.75,76 The methylation frequency becomes higher as the disease progresses.75,77 However, hypermethylation of the APC promoter was also observed in BPH tissues.78 Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are known to control the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)79 in several biological processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis.80,81 Four members of TIMPs have been identified and are known to be down-regulated in prostate cancer.82,83 Down-regulation of TIMP proteins is associated with hypermethylation of the corresponding gene promoters.84 In particular, low-level methylation of TIMP2 and TIMP3 promoters has been detected in prostate carcinoma as well as in BPH.

More than 10% of the current sample was classified as suicidal an

More than 10% of the current sample was classified as suicidal and feeling sad/hopeless with these adolescents having a 50% chance of reporting at least one or more suicide attempt. Black youth are more likely selleck chem to report feeling sad/hopeless and one or more suicide attempts than White youth (29.2% vs. 26.2% and 7.7% vs. 5.6%), respectively (CDC, 2011). Suicidal behaviors among Black youth have historically been lower than that of their White counterparts (CDC, 1995). These findings in conjunction with other recent epidemiological findings indicate that an increasingly substantial proportion of Black youth experience suicidality (Joe et al., 2009; NCHS, 2009). It is important to note, however, that the hypothesis regarding whether or not Black youth would be likely to express attempts without ideation was not supported.

It may be that factors related to overall increases in suicidality among Black youth also contribute to increasing the likelihood of reporting suicidal thoughts in this population. The findings from this study and others may indicate a shift in the qualitative (endorsement of ideation and plans to harm oneself) and quantitative (higher rates compared with their White counterparts) expression of suicidality among Black youth (CDC, 2011; Joe et al., 2009). With respect to the co-occurrence of tobacco use and suicidality, it is known that smoking increases the release of dopamine and serotonin (Benowitz, 2001), which are associated with mood elevation. Former smoking significantly increased the likelihood of any suicidality compared with nonsmokers.

Thus in our sample of Black youth, former smokers may be experiencing nicotine withdrawal symptoms associated with a decrease in the mood elevating neurotransmitters associated with smoking, since a defining characteristic of the mild suicidality class was an increase in the probability of feeling sad/hopeless. Light current smoking and frequent current smoking were significantly associated with predicting being classified as suicidal but not mild suicidality. In this instance, current smokers may be self-medicating and only those with more severe symptoms as characterized by the suicidal class are distinguishable from nonsuicidal respondents compared with mild suicidality. Finally, Blacks may be less likely to obtain treatment for either tobacco dependence or mental health problems (Fiore et al.

, 2000; Neighbors et Brefeldin_A al., 2007), and given the increase in suicidality and consistency of disparate health outcomes, the manifestation of these risks require exploration. Despite prior research, the direction of causality between substance use and negative mental health (depression and suicidality) has yet to be determined conclusively in the literature. The extant research literature is equivocal on the mechanism by which tobacco use is positively associated with an increased risk for suicide.

Since the findings are not consistent in different study cohorts

Since the findings are not consistent in different study cohorts [18], [20], the association of these HLA-DP SNPs with HBV disease activity remains unclear. In the present study, we primarily aimed to investigate the association of 3 HLA-DP SNPs, namely rs3077, rs9277378 and rs3128917, with chronicity of HBV infection 17-AAG side effects in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. In addition, we studied the association of these SNPs with hepatitis B disease activity. This will extend our understanding of the association between HLA-DP variations and HBV infection and may provide some evidences to explain the widely different prevalence of chronic HBV in different ethnic groups in the world. Patients and Methods Patients The present study recruited 500 chronic HBV carriers (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive for more than 6 months) who had been followed up in our liver clinics in the Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong.

Upon their first and/or follow up visits, these HBV carriers had given verbal informed consent for the storage of blood samples for further studies. We have also recruited 706 consecutive HBsAg-negative control subjects who have donated blood at the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, and they all had given verbal informed consent during blood donation for the storage of blood samples. Data were analyzed anonymously for the 706 HBsAg-negative blood donors. Approval has been obtained from the Institution Review Board, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, for retrieving archived samples for this study.

Among the 706 HBsAg-negative subjects, 202 had previous history of hepatitis B vaccination and were excluded from the subsequent analysis. All study patients/subjects are Chinese, and all blood samples were collected during the period January 2010 to March 2011. All subjects were tested negative for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus by the Procleix Ultrio Assay (Novartis Diagnostics, Emeryville, CA). Of the 504 non-vaccinated control subjects, 259 had HBV natural clearance (HBV clearance group), denoted by the presence of detectable anti-HBc by the Elecsys assay (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). The remaining 245 subjects (non-HBV infected group) were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Longitudinal clinical data, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBV DNA measurements, were obtained from the 500 HBV carriers.

Inactive asymptomatic HBV carriers were defined by HBV DNA levels <2,000 IU/ml and persistently normal ALT (<58 U/L for male and <36 U/L for female) for least 12 months. Genotyping Assays Three SNPs within chromosome 6, namely rs3077 (in the 3�� untranslated region of the HLA-DPA1 gene), rs9277378 and rs3128917 (inside and near the HLA-DPB1 gene, respectively), were studied (Figure Cilengitide 1).

After the participant completed the questionnaire, the researcher

After the participant completed the questionnaire, the researcher somehow installed the monitoring device to monitor levels of PM2.5 under each of five conditions. Air quality in each vehicle was monitored using a TSI Dustrak aerosol monitor (TSI Inc., Shoreview, MN). The Dustrak was used with a 2.5-micron impactor to measure PM2.5 and was calibrated prior to each experimental session with an high efficiency particulate air filter according to the manufacturer’s specifications. The Dustrak was set to record the average PM2.5 concentration every 60 s. A customized calibration factor of 0.32 was applied to the device, determined by calibrating the device in the present study with other light-scattering photometers measuring TSP (Hyland, Travers, & Repace, 2004; Repace, 2004; Travers et al., 2004, 2007).

Two other devices were placed in the car to monitor air quality parameters (e.g., carbon monoxide), but those data are not included in this analysis. Monitoring was conducted on one car at a time. The monitor was secured in the participant’s car (Figure 1). The location and height of the monitoring device inlet was designed to be at head level for a young child sitting in a car seat in the middle of the back seat of each car so that the data collected would provide a reasonable estimate of exposure levels of PM2.5 for a young child sitting in the back seat of the car. Figure 1. Photo of equipment setup inside a participant’s car. Once the equipment was secure, the participant received specific instructions about the setup of the car.

Table 1 presents the specific instructions that were given to each participant for each condition. The participant then sat in the driver’s seat and closed the door immediately. The participant was instructed not to turn on the car, open any windows or doors while inside the car, or turn on the air conditioning or fan, unless specified by the condition (i.e., Condition 5). Table 1. Descriptive summary of conditions Once in the car, the participant lit the cigarette and smoked it at a natural pace. The participant then either finished the cigarette and immediately left the vehicle or drove for 20 min while consuming the cigarette before returning and exiting the vehicle. In all cases, the time from the door opening to the door shutting again during the exit period was less than 3 s and did not appear to affect the levels of PM2.

5 in the car. During each condition, the participant smoked only one cigarette. The start and end times for each cigarette consumed were recorded by the experimenter. The air monitoring device remained in the car for at least 25 min following participant entry into the car to provide baseline comparison values before the car was started, and once the engine was started but Batimastat before the cigarette was lit.

39�C41 Their patients had nephrotic-range proteinuria and normal

39�C41 Their patients had nephrotic-range proteinuria and normal or near normal renal function. Conversely, investigators from the Netherlands have described outcomes of an extended course, typically 12 months (Table 1), of daily oral cyclophosphamide and sellckchem corticosteroids in patients with nephrotic syndrome and deteriorating renal function.34,42 Table 2. Selected studies of alkylating agents in patients with IMN Both Ponticelli et al. and Jha et al. found that alternating monthly cycles of corticosteroids and an alkylating agent were more effective than supportive therapy alone for inducing remissions of proteinuria and preserving renal function.40,41 Ponticelli et al. found that substitution of cyclophosphamide for chlorambucil provides similar efficacy with an improved adverse event profile.

43 Jha et al. permitted crossover to the immunosuppressive treatment arm 24 months after randomization to supportive treatment.41 It is notable that remission rates were lower among patients who switched to immunosuppression as rescue therapy (47%) than among those who were initially randomized to immunosuppression (72%), suggesting that delay in immunosuppressive therapy until evidence of disease progression diminishes efficacy. Studies reported by du Buf-Vereijken et al. and Hofstra et al. from the Netherlands provide additional insights into the effect of delaying cytotoxic drug therapy for IMN until there is evidence of renal function deterioration.34,42,44 These investigators favor this restrictive treatment policy because it identifies patients at highest risk of progression and avoids unnecessary immunosuppression in patients with a more favorable prognosis.

A beneficial effect of this approach in attenuating deterioration of renal function was shown in the case-controlled study of high-risk IMN patients reported by du Buf-Vereijken et al.34 Renal outcomes of 65 patients treated for 1 year with oral cytoxan and steroids were compared with 24 historical matched control patients. Control patients received either no immunosuppression or treatments that have subsequently proven to be ineffective (prednisone monotherapy, intravenous cyclophosphamide, or both). Patients had an impaired GFR at baseline (median creatinine clearance of 42 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and high-grade proteinuria. Remission of proteinuria was achieved in 86% of 65 patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy (Table 2).

At 5 years, a renal survival advantage was evident in cytoxan-treated patients compared with controls (86% versus 32%; P<0.001). The renal survival of these cytoxan-treated patients at 7 years was 74%, which is somewhat lower than the 10-year renal survival of patients with normal baseline renal function treated with a cytotoxic drug regimen by Ponticelli Batimastat et al.40 (92%). Hofstra et al.

Severe thrombocytopoenia (13%) and anaemia (2%) occurred much les

Severe thrombocytopoenia (13%) and anaemia (2%) occurred much less frequently. The present results, in keeping with the key toxicities, are reported for first-line docetaxel/carboplatin in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma (Vasey et al, 2004), that is 94, 9 and 11% grade 3/4 neutropaenia, thrombocytopoenia Vandetanib hypothyroidism and anaemia, respectively. The other most common treatment-related grade 3/4 AEs in the current study were diarrhoea, rash, febrile neutropaenia/infection (subsequent to severe chemotherapy-induced neutropaenia), fatigue and dehydration. Diarrhoea is common with docetaxel/carboplatin (Vasey et al, 2004) and with erlotinib (Shepherd et al, 2005). Similarly, fatigue is common to both chemotherapy and erlotinib (Vasey et al, 2004; Shepherd et al, 2005).

The rash observed in the present trial resulted from the erlotinib therapy, and has been reported in trials with erlotinib alone or in combination with chemotherapy in various tumour types (Gordon et al, 2005; Moore et al, 2005; Shepherd et al, 2005). Moreover, evidence indicates that the presence and severity of rash is correlated with survival in lung cancer (Perez-Soler et al, 2004), pancreatic cancer (Moore et al, 2005) and ovarian cancer (Gordon et al, 2005). As expected, AEs were more frequent with increasing doses of erlotinib in this trial. However, there was no evidence of cumulative toxicity as most patients completed the full six cycles of planned treatment. Various clinical trials have also demonstrated that combining erlotinib with chemotherapy is feasible in a wide variety of tumours.

In previously reported phase I/Ib trials, the MTD of erlotinib with cytotoxic agents ranged from 100mgday?1 (with capecitabine/docetaxel: Trigo et al, 2003; with Cilengitide capecitabine/oxaliplatin: van Cutsem et al, 2003; with docetaxel: Mita et al, 2002) to 150mgday?1 (with oxaliplatin/5-FU: Jones et al, 2003). The MTD of erlotinib of 75mgday?1 in the present trial is lower than in trials with other combinations. This finding may be due to the additive toxicities with docetaxel/carboplatin. Indeed, dose escalation of erlotinib to 150mgday?1 after chemotherapy suggests that erlotinib is better tolerated as a single agent in this patient setting. Although preclinical and early clinical trials demonstrated promising antitumour activity of erlotinib in combination with chemotherapy, this benefit has not always been reflected in phase III trials. For example, first-line treatment with erlotinib (150mgday?1) combined with standard platinum-based chemotherapy did not improve survival in the overall population of patients with advanced NSCLC; although never-smokers did experience a significant survival benefit in a post-randomisation analysis (Gatzemeier et al, 2004, 2005; Herbst et al, 2005).

In this respect, a previous report showed that TNF-�� can activat

In this respect, a previous report showed that TNF-�� can activate c-Abl and upregulate apoptotic p73 function via a caspase-dependent elimination of retinoblastoma protein, and thus unleashing the nuclear apoptotic effector, c-Abl [8]. Currently the molecular events linking caspase to non-cleaved c-Abl activation following TRAIL stimulation remains unknown, and despite further investigation is required. In contrast to reduced TRAIL sensitivity in colon cancer cells, STI571 did not change the susceptibility of PC3 and LNCaP cells to TRAIL. We ruled out such cell type-specific effects of STI571 being related to c-Abl protein expression. Similar expression levels of c-Abl were observed in HCT116, SW480, PC3, and LNCaP cells (data not shown).

Instead, we suggest that the antitumor activity of TRAIL in colon and prostate cancers might involve distinctive regulation and complex apoptotic pathways. In prostate cancers, neither p38 nor JNK activation by TRAIL is involved in cell death, while STI571 can still slightly inhibit TRAIL-induced JNK activation in prostate cancers. Moreover, TRAIL-mediated c-Abl cleavage displayed the same pattern in HCT116 and LNCaP cells. Therefore, these results further support the notion that the cell type-specific effect of STI571 on antitumor activity of TRAIL is dependent on the roles of p38 and JNK in cell death per se. Conclusions We demonstrate a novel mediator role of p73 in activating the stress kinases, p38 and JNK, in the apoptotic pathway of TRAIL (Figure (Figure7).7).

This action is initiated by caspase-dependent c-Abl activation, and is a key mechanism contributing to death receptor-mediated cell apoptosis in colon cancer, but not prostate cancer cells. Through inhibition of the c-Abl-mediated apoptotic p73 signaling, STI571 reduces the antitumor activity of TRAIL. In this sense, this study is not in favor of the cocktail therapy of STI571 and TRAIL in human colon cancers, and also highlights the cancer-specific effect of stress kinases on the antitumor activities of TRAIL. Figure 7 Signaling pathway for the cytoprotective effect of STI571 in TRAIL-treated colon cancer cells. In addition to induce classical apoptotic cascade elicited by caspases, TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells requires p38 and JNK activation. We propose …

Abbreviations CML: Chronic myelogenous leukemia; DR: Death receptor; FADD: Fas-associated protein with death domain; FasL: Fas ligand; JNK: c-Jun Anacetrapib NH2-terminal kinase; MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase; MEKK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; PI: Propidium iodide; RB: Retinoblastoma; RIP: Receptor-interacting protein; TNF-��: Tumor necrotic factor-��; TRAF2: TNF receptor-associated factor 2; TRAIL: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; zVAD: z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluromethylketone. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Results 8 MPEG-PL-Cy5 5 Probe Characterization In order to determ

Results 8 MPEG-PL-Cy5.5 Probe Characterization In order to determine trypsin activation in experimental pancreatitis using the caerulein model, we developed a probe that was selective to trypsin activity. To evaluate the mechanism of action, in vivo, of trypsin inhibitor drug-like compounds, we prepared a self-quenched selleck chemicals llc trypsin activatable near infrared smart probe. When rat anionic trypsin was added to 1 ��M of mPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe, increase in fluorescence intensity was observed which was positively correlated to the concentration of trypsin enzyme and the time of incubation. To establish trypsin selectivity, mPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe activation was tested by addition to a panel of endopeptidases that are described to be expressed in the pancreas, including human and rat pancreatic elastase, kallikrein 1, kallikrein 5, chymotrypsin, cathepsin L, and cathepsin B [22].

As shown in figure 1, mPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe was activated in the presence of trypsin in contrast to other pancreatic enzymes. In the presence of the highly specific trypsin inhibiting protein SPINK1, the protease activation was suppressed to background levels (figure 1). Therefore, it can be concluded that mPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe was highly trypsin selective. Figure 1 MPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe characterization. 9 In Vivo Monitoring of Trypsin Activation 9.1 Model development The caerulein-injection model is a well-established mechanistic model for experimental pancreatitis. For optical imaging, however, the anatomical location of the pancreas posed a challenge to signal acquisition.

Animal weight and age were critical when choosing subjects for optical imaging study. Adult rats were considered the most suitable because of their smaller stomach size and separation of the pancreas and stomach. Upon administration of caerulein in rats, edema development is observed. We administered a blood pool imaging agent Angiosense 680 to confirm our ability to image pancreas non-invasively in rats. Healthy animals that were subjected to repeated doses of caerulein showed increasing accumulation of the blood pool agent Angiosense 680. The graph in figure 2a shows a threefold enhancement in Angiosense 680 signal in the pancreas normalized to signal acquired before caerulein administration. Therefore, for these studies, three caerulein administrations were sufficient. Figure 2 In vivo pancreatitis imaging of edema (A) and trypsin activation (B).

Establishing the ability to image diseased pancreas in a rat model using optical imaging, we evaluated the time course and severity of trypsin activation in this experimental pancreatitis model using the trypsin activatable mPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe. 9.2 Trypsin dependent activation of mPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe MPEG-PL-Cy5.5 probe was administered to healthy animals and then three hourly repeated caerulein injections were GSK-3 administered to evaluate the time and severity of trypsin activation. MPEG-PL-Cy5.