For each compound, only the data of the highest dose group and it

For each compound, only the data of the highest dose group and its control group was used. Of 150 compounds, we omitted one compound and analyzed the remaining 149 compounds because that one compound was found to have killed animals before

15D in the study and therefore no data is available for 3-Methyladenine liver weight of 15D. In courtesy of Dr. Frans Coenen, we used a CBA program available on the LUCS-KDD website, which is implemented according to the original algorithm by [6], except that CARs are first generated using the Apriori-TFP algorithm instead of the CBA-RG algorithm. The basic concept of CBA is briefly explained here based on the explanations from [6] with examples in this study. For detail, refer to [6]. Let D be the dataset, a set of records

d (d ∈ D). Let I be the set of all non-class items in D, and Y be the set of class labels in D. In this study, a non-class item is a pair of gene ID and its discretized expression (Inc or Dec) (Inc: Increased, Dec: Decreased) and a class label is a pair of a target parameter (RLW: relative liver weight) and its discretized value (Inc or NI, or Dec or ND) (NI: Not Increased, ND: Not Decreased). The set of class labels Y in this study is either (RLW, Inc), (RLW, NI) or (RLW, Dec), (RLW, ND). We say that Sotrastaurin molecular weight a record d ∈ D contains X ⊆ I, or simply X ⊆ d, if d has all the non-class items of X. Similarly, a record d ∈ D contains y ∈ Y, or simply y ⊆ d, if d has the class label y. A rule is an association of the form X → y (e.g. (Gene_01, Inc), (Gene_02, Dec) → (RLW, Inc)). For a rule X → y, X is called an antecedent of the rule and y is called a consequence of the rule. A rule X → y holds in D with confidence c if c% of the records in D

that contain X are labeled with class y. A rule X → y has support s in D if s% of the records in D contain X and are labeled with class y. The objectives of CBA are (1) to generate the complete set of rules that satisfy the user-specified minimum support (called minsup) and minimum confidence (called minconf) Nutlin 3 constraints, and (2) to build a classifier from these rules (class association rules, or CARs). The original CBA algorithm of Liu et al. consists of two parts, a rule generator (called CBA-RG) and a classifier builder (called CBA-CB), each corresponding to (1) and (2). The key operation of CBA-RG is to find all rules X → y that have support above minsup. Rules that satisfy minsup are called frequent, while the rest are called infrequent. For all the rulesthat have the same antecedent, the rule with the highest confidence is chosen as the possible rule (PR) representing this set of rules. If there are more than one rules with the same highest confidence, one rule is randomly selected. If the confidence is greater than minconf, the rule is accurate.

“Patients with colitis have an increased risk of developin

“Patients with colitis have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), although the excess risk seems to be diminishing. People with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) colitis have a higher risk of developing CRC than the general population. The most reliable estimates of this risk come from population-based studies. The first such study, a large Swedish cohort of long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC), found a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) compared with the general population of 5.7 (95% CI, 4.6–7.0).1 In

more recent population-based VE-822 ic50 studies of UC, the magnitude of risk seems smaller: an updated Swedish study found an SIR of 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0–2.6),2 and one from Canada found an SIR of 2.75 (95% CI, 1.91–3.97).3 Studies that have found no difference in CRC incidence or morbidity when comparing UC with the general population have in general been limited by selection bias4 and retrospective study design.5 A recent meta-analysis that summarizes the data from FK506 concentration only population-based cohort studies found the risk of CRC 2.4-fold

higher in UC compared with the general population.6 Recent evidence suggests that the CRC risk in Crohn’s colitis seems parallel to that in UC, for the same extent of colonic involvement. In Ekbom and colleagues’ study,7 patients with colonic Crohn had a relative risk (RR) of 5.6 (95% CI, 2.1–12.2) compared with the general population, in contrast to those with terminal ileal Crohn, who had a risk no different from the general population. Subsequent studies have corroborated these findings in Crohn’s disease, reporting SIR of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2–3.4)2 and RR 2.64 (95% CI, 1.69–4.12).3 Various potential reasons for the apparent reduced risk of CRC over time have been postulated, including early study selection bias, differing means of determining colitis extent, timely colectomy, better disease (inflammation) control, a chemopreventive effect of aminosalicylate compounds, and the beneficial Thymidylate synthase effect of surveillance programs. Not all people with colitis have the same magnitude of CRC risk—several additional risk factors have been identified. Many

studies (including a systematic review) have demonstrated that an increasing extent of mucosal inflammation correlates with increased CRC risk.1, 2, 5, 8 and 9 The measurement of disease extent has evolved over time: earliest studies used barium enemas, in contrast to more recent studies that have used either endoscopic (macroscopic) or histologic evidence. The original Swedish population-based study by Ekbom calculated a risk in UC for CRC of 1.7 for proctitis (nonsignificant), 2.8 for left-sided colitis, and 14.8 for pancolitis, compared with the general population.1 Soderlund and colleagues’2 updated study also indicated an increased risk, albeit of lower magnitude, with SIR 5.6 for pancolitis, 2.1 for Crohn’s colitis, and 1.7 for proctitis—all statistically significantly higher than the general population.

1 Since then many terms were employed to describe cases of pancre

1 Since then many terms were employed to describe cases of pancreatitis with similar characteristics until 1995 when, for the first time, the term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was applied.2 From this date, many advances in the understanding of this entity have been recorded. At the same SB431542 solubility dmso time, an increased incidence of pancreatic diseases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported, namely with ulcerative colitis (UC). This may be drug-related or due to the increased incidence of cholelithiasis among IBD patients.3 However rarer forms of chronic pancreatitis

are described, and its association with AIP is underlined by different case reports, although the true incidence is still unknown.3, 4 and 5 We present the case of a 34-year-old white man with no past medical history who developed malaise, fatigue, persistent epigastric discomfort and one month later jaundice. There was no history of alcohol intake, drug abuse or medication. The physical exam was unremarkable except for jaundice and epigastric pain. Laboratory evaluation was remarkable for abnormal liver function tests with cholestasis and slight hepatic cytolysis (alkaline phosphatase, 340 UI/L; gamma-glutamyl this website transferase, 191 UI/L; total bilirubin, 5.57 mg/dl; aspartate aminotransferase, 86 UI/L;

Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) alanine aminotransferase, 102 UI/L). Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with extra-hepatic cholestasis and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) documented common bile duct (CBD) narrowing at the pancreatic level, which was described as normal. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) confirmed the intra-pancreatic regular CBD stenosis without further changes of the extra-pancreatic bile structures (Fig. 1A). Biliary citology was

negative for malignancy. Pancreatic duct canulation was unsuccessful and a 10 Fr biliary stent was placed (Fig. 1B). For further evaluation a magnetic resonance imaging-cholangiopancreatography (MRI-CP) was ordered, which revealed discrete pancreatic head heterogeneity, with no main pancreatic duct (MPD) abnormalities. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed an abnormal pancreatic head, overall hypoechoic, heterogeneity and slightly increased, with no MPD visualization (Fig. 2). This was felt suggestive of AIP and fine needle aspiration with a 19 g Trucut needle (Cook) at the pancreatic neck was performed. Histology showed extensive pancreatic fibrosis, marked ductopenia, diffuse lymphocytic infiltration predominantly periductal as well as peri-venular lymphocytic infiltrates (Fig. 3). These findings were felt to support the diagnosis of AIP. Additional laboratory evaluation showed increase of IgG4 (212 mg/dl).

Also, international guidelines for drinking-water quality, which

Also, international guidelines for drinking-water quality, which establish limit concentrations for inorganic chemicals

of health significance in drinking-water was assessed. The guidelines establish for As, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the limits of 0.01, 0.07, 2.0, and 0.70 mg/L, respectively. For Cr, Li, Al and Sr there are no specifications (WHO, 2008, chap. 8). In all the V. labrusca L. juices, the metal contamination was found to be below the permitted limits for trace elements selleck compound according to international requirements. The addition of grape seeds significantly increased the polyphenol content and the antioxidant potential in grape juices from different varieties Ixazomib purchase V. labrusca L. The elemental analysis demonstrated an increase in concentrations of some essential minerals in juices produced with the addition of seeds. The use of grape seeds in juice production comprises an interesting approach for the enrichment of natural food and improvement of health benefits, and also an ecological alternative to reduce viticulture waste. Notwithstanding, application of grape constituents in juice represents an attractive source of bioactive compounds in human diet. The authors are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior

(CAPES) for financial support. “
“Sugar substitutes have received much attention recently due to the increasing worldwide demand for light and diet foods. These products are destined for individuals searching for low calorie food and/or those that attend specific diets, preventing or controlling common diseases such as diabetes. The absence of sugar in processed products alters moisture retention and other characteristics such as flavor, texture, color and aroma, making it difficult

to obtain products similar to the conventional ones. In this case, ingredients that give body to the product must be used, substituting Reverse transcriptase the volume and texture lost by removing sugar. Polyols or sugar alcohols are hydrogenated carbohydrates that provide texture to foods, contributing to the nutritional value and flavor and showing organoleptic characteristics (Legaz & Vicente, 2005), and their use as sugar substitutes is widely recognized. The polyols used industrially include sorbitol and xylitol, which are monosaccharides, and maltitol which is a disaccharide. Recently the sugar alcohols have attracted consumers since they present multiple health benefits. They can be consumed by diabetics, are non-cariogenic (Livesey, 2003) and have low calorie content (Siefarth et al., 2011). The polyols show a calorie content of 2.4 kcal/g, whereas the sugars and other carbohydrates show a value of 4 kcal/g (Zumbé, Lee, & Storey, 2001).

The present study reports on the use of novel software to identif

The present study reports on the use of novel software to identify antimicrobial peptide sequences on the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transcriptome and on the human genome databases. The selected sequences were biochemically synthesized and in vitro tested against fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, in silico structural analyses were also conducted. The peptides were obtained from genome databank by using a script that takes in consideration peptide length, total charge surface and hydrophobic moment (data not published). Among hundred peptides, 13 were selected since it fitted to properties described

Target Selective Inhibitor Library in vitro in APD2 databank as antimicrobial peptides [47]. The criteria used to design this software took into consideration some antimicrobial characteristics such as the presence of positively charged amino acid residues, low molecular weight, and the balance between cationic charge and hydrophobicity. The databases used to identify these sequences were the human genome ( and transcriptome of the human pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis PLX-4720 solubility dmso ( Several

potential antimicrobial peptide sequences were identified in both databases and four of them, two from each database, based on better antimicrobial characteristics, were selected and chemically synthesized. The peptides were synthesized by the 9-fluoroenylmethoxy-carbonyl Immune system technique [22] using an automated bench top simultaneous multiple solid-phase peptide synthesizer (PSSM 8 system; Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). The synthesized peptides were then re-purified with a semi-preparative reverse-phase C-18 (5 μm, 300A, Vydac 218TP510, Hesperia, USA) in a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

system (Shimadzu Co., Japan). The HPLC fractions were eluted in 60 min in linear gradient water and acetonitrile (JT Baker, Mexico), both containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, JT Baker, Mexico). RP-HPLC experiments were monitored at two different wavelengths (216 and 280 nm). The purity of peptides was assessed by analysis of the molecules present in the fractions using mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF/TOF Ultraflex II (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). The purified peptides were lyophilized and stored at −70 °C until used. The peptides were identified as P1 and P4 from the human genome and P2 and P3 from P. brasiliensis transcriptome. Fresh heparinized blood of Swiss mice was used to investigate the in vitro hemolytic activity of the peptides according to Italia and collaborators [26] with minor modifications. The red blood cells (RBCs) were obtained by centrifugation of the whole blood at 3000 rcf for 15 min. The supernatant was discarded and the RBCs were washed thrice with saline solution (NaCl 0.9%).

K ) Protein quality, either under non-reducing or reducing condi

K.). Protein quality, either under non-reducing or reducing conditions, was analyzed by Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE. Crystals were grown at 18 °C by vapor diffusion via the sitting drop technique. All crystallization screening and optimization experiments were completed with an Art-Robbins Phoenix dispensing robot (Alpha Biotech Ltd, U.K.). 200 nL of 10–20 mg/ml TCR, pMHC, or TCR and pMHC complex mixed at a 1:1 molar ratio,

was added to 200 nL of reservoir solution. Intelli-plates were then sealed and incubated in a crystallization incubator (18 °C) (Molecular Dimensions) and analyzed for crystal formation. Crystals selected for further analysis were cryoprotected with 25% ethylene glycol and then flash cooled in liquid nitrogen in Litho loops (Molecular

Dimensions). Diffraction data was collected at a number of different beamlines at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, using a Pilatus 2M, or a QADSC, selleck chemical detector. click here Using a rotation method, 400 frames were recorded each covering 0.5° of rotation. Reflection intensities were estimated with the XIA2 package (Winter, 2010) and the data were scaled, reduced and analyzed with SCALA and the CCP4 package (Collaborative Computational Project, N, 1994). The TCR, pMHC, or TCR/pMHC complex structures were solved with molecular replacement using PHASER (McCoy et al., 2005), or AMORE (Trapani and Navaza, 2008). The model sequences were adjusted with COOT (Emsley and Cowtan, 2004) and the models refined with

REFMAC5. TCR/pMHC complex structures have previously been solved by a number of different groups using individually determined crystallization conditions. In order to combine these data to generate a comprehensive TCR/pMHC Optimized Protein crystallization Screen (TOPS), we investigated the crystallization conditions of 16 previously published TCR/pMHC complexes ( Garboczi et al., 1996, Garcia et al., 1996, Ding et al., 1998, Ding et al., 1999, Hennecke et al., 2000, Reiser et al., 2000, Reiser et al., 2003, Hennecke and Wiley, 2002, Kjer-Nielsen et al., 2003, Stewart-Jones et al., 2003, Chen et al., 2005, Li et al., 2005, Maynard et al., 2005, Tynan et al., 2005, Tynan et al., 2007, Sami et al., 2007 and Cole ADP ribosylation factor et al., 2009) ( Fig. 1). Although there was a substantial variation in the crystallization conditions identified for different TCR/pMHC complexes, we noticed certain trends. The pH lay between 5.6–8.5 in all cases, with the TCR/pMHC complexes tending to crystallize at the higher end of this pH range ( Fig. 1A); with 25%, 19% and 19% of complexes crystallizing in the pH range of 7.0–7.5, 7.5–8.0 and 8.0–8.5, respectively. Six conditions (38%) contained glycerol as cryoprotectant ( Fig. 1B). All conditions contained PEG (polyethylene glycol), although the weight (550–8000 g/mol) and percentage (10–25%) were very variable. The best PEG concentration, representing 31% of the previous structures reported, was between 15%–17.5%.

The nearshore geology, based on 1:50,000 geological maps (IGME),

The nearshore geology, based on 1:50,000 geological maps (IGME), was complemented with onshore field observations (Alves and Lourenço, 2010, Bathrellos et al., 2012 and Kokinou et al., 2013) as well as offshore information (Alves et al., 2007 and Kokinou et al., 2012). All information was digitized and included in an ARCGIS database. The location of NATURA 2000 sites were taken from public EU data (

Oceanographic inputs for the study area considered a predominant SE–NW current direction, potentially transporting pollutants towards the southwest coast of Crete. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to combine and interpret the datasets and their derivatives. Maps were created using interpolation algorithms, such as Kriging in the initial step, that compute the spatial distribution of specific geological, bathymetric, and oceanographic properties. Dasatinib chemical structure Kriging is based on statistical models (autocorrelation), variogram modelling,

creating the surface, and (optionally) exploring a variance surface. The oil-spill model used in this work is the well-established MEDSLIK (Mediterranean oil spill and floating objects predictions) in its latest operational version 5.3.7 (Lardner and Zodiatis, 1998, Lardner et al., 2006, Zodiatis et al., 2012b and Lardner, 2013). The MEDSLIK is a 3D oil-spill model that can predict the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills at any given sea location, or region, upon the availability of oceanographic and weather data. In particular, MEDSLIK has been adapted and used for real incidents, Cabozantinib cell line such as the Lebanon oil pollution crisis in summer 2006 (Lardner et al., 2006, World Bank, 2007 and Coppini et al., 2011), which is considered the largest oil spill accident to ever affect the Eastern Mediterranean. MEDSLIK has

been used operationally from 2007 until April 2012 to provide short predictions for any oil spills detected from satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images in the Eastern Mediterranean (Zodiatis et al., 2012b). MEDSLIK is also at the core of the Mediterranean Resveratrol Decision Support System for Marine Safety (; Zodiatis et al., 2012a), aiming to establish by the end of 2014 a multi model oil-spill prediction service for the entire Mediterranean. This service will use all the available operational oceanographic and atmospheric forecasting data coming from the Copernicus (former GMES-Global monitoring for environment and security) marine service and the national operational oceanographic forecasting systems, as well as data from satellite SAR images and the AIS (Automatic Identifications of Ships). It is of worth to mention that the source code of MEDSLIK has been released and well documented under MEDSLIK-II (De Dominicis et al., 2013a and De Dominicis et al., 2013b), aiming to assist at European level further developments in oil spill prediction modelling.

Therefore it was reported that spontaneous interaction of B1R and

Therefore it was reported that spontaneous interaction of B1R and B2R increases the ability of B1R but not of B2R

to be stimulated by its agonist [11]; heterodimerization between B2R and AT1R causes increased activation of G protein signaling triggered Nintedanib mw by AT1R but not by B2R [1]; AngII may regulate the expression of B2R mRNA [32], that B2R gene is a downstream target of AngII AT1R [29]; the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is enhanced in kinin B1R knockout mice (B1KO) [20] and by an interaction between ACE and kinin B2R [27]. These data from the literature about cross-talk between RAS and KKS and the evidence for expression of AngII AT1R protein and mRNA in endothelial cells [18], [22], [23], [31] and [35] provide rationale for studying the interactions between AngII and BK receptors in addition to the assessment about vascular reactivity of the kinin as well as the expression level of B2R in the aorta

isolated from transgenic (TGR(Tie2B1)) rats. Experiments were carried out using 300–350 g Sprague-Dawley rats as control (WT) and overexpressing B1R (TGR(Tie2B1)), [17] from the “Centro de Desenvolvimento de Modelos Experimentais” (CEDEME) of the Universidade Federal learn more de São Paulo (UNIFESP). The animals were maintained on standard rat chow at 21–23 °C and kept on 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle and allowed ad libitum access to food and water. The protocols used in this study were in accordance with current guidelines for the care of laboratory animals and ethical guidelines for investigations approved by the Animal Care Committee of UNIFESP. Thoracic aorta were isolated from rat, cleared of connective tissue and mounted as ring preparations into 5 ml organ baths. The rings of aorta were bathed in carboxygenated (95% O2/5% CO2), and modified Krebs-Ringer solution: 144 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 1.1 mM MgSO4, 25 mM NaHCO3, Selleckchem Rucaparib 1.1 mM NaH2PO4, 1.25 mM CaCl and 5.5 mM glucose at 37 °C (pH 7.4). Resting tension was maintained at 0.5 g and the tissues were left to equilibrate for 90 min, with frequent changing of

bathing solution. The tissue viability was assessed with a priming dose of 80 mM KCl and 1 μM norepinephrine (NE), as described previously by [30]. Following a 90 min washout and recovery period, changes in tension produced by the stimulants were measured with an isometric transducer TRI201 (Panlab s.l., Cornella, Barcelona, Spain) through an amplifier Powerlab 4/30 and software Labchart Pro V7 (ADInstruments, Colorado Springs, CO, USA). Cumulative concentration–response curves were constructed for BK applying increasing concentrations (0.1 nM to 1 μM) of the agonist. On the other hand non-cumulative concentration–response curves were obtained for AngI and Ang II to avoid desensitization, as described previously by [3].

Thus, the main objective of this study was to document the ethica

Thus, the main objective of this study was to document the ethical issues involved in the systematic inclusion of relatives as clients in the rehabilitation process, from three perspectives: that of relatives,

individuals with a first stroke (stroke clients), and health professionals. This paper reports the qualitative data based on these perspectives in five Canadian urban settings. A two-phase qualitative design of a phenomenological orientation was used [20]. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews [21] and [22] with relatives and stroke clients in order to document their perceptions of actual and ideal services received by relatives both in acute care (Time 1) and in in-patient or out-patient rehabilitation (Time 2). Space was allowed to express lived NVP-BGJ398 solubility dmso experience relating to health services as well as individuals perception of relationships with health professionals including how they wished these to be in an ideal world, a world without time or resources constraint. Only those

who actually received formal rehabilitation services were interviewed at both times, four to six weeks following discharge, allowing patients to resume their normal activities and having LGK-974 the necessary hindsight to comment on actual and ideal services. Phase 2 consisted of three focus groups [23], in which results from Phase 1 were discussed with other relatives, stroke clients, and health professionals. The second phase enabled a form of validation of results and analysis with other participants [24] presenting similar characteristics (relatives and stroke-client). It was also decided to hold a focus group with health professionals although they were not individually interviewed to expand meanings and application of results to their clinical reality. This focus group PtdIns(3,4)P2 was planned to be held at the very end of the data collection process. Three populations were targeted by the study: (1) relatives defined as the individual who has shown a presence with the patient since stroke, (2) individuals who have had a first stroke (stroke-clients) and (3) health professionals working with a stroke clientele.

Table 1 illustrates inclusion and exclusion criteria and the diversity sought to maximize the scope of lived experiences. As relatives were recruited by way of approaching stroke-client, we assumed that the diversity of stroke-clients would result in a similar diversity for relatives. Although we did recruit some dyads (relative-patient), this was not an inclusion criterion. Targeted sample size for Phase 1 was 20 in each group with approximately half being referred to rehabilitation for a total of n = 60 interviews to ensure data saturation [22] whereas targeted sample size for focus groups of Phase 2 were 5–7 participants per group [23]. Health professionals were recruited with the help of local on-site research coordinator not involved in the study.

All of these amino acids may be essential for the recognition of

All of these amino acids may be essential for the recognition of this region exclusively by anti-crotalic horse antivenom. Six other epitopes were recognized by both antivenom sera: Cys27–Gly30 and Gly59–Tyr73

from BthTX-I; Leu17–Tyr25, Pro37–Cys45 and Gly80–Thr89 from BthTX-II; and Ser17–Tyr25 GSK2118436 manufacturer from BthA-I. The 27CNCG30 region corresponded to the Ca2+-binding loop within the three dimensional structure of BthTX-I (Fernandes et al., 2010). The acidic Cys27–Gly30 epitope (theoretical pI = 5.51) was a conserved region in Lys49-PLA2s that was recognized by both antivenom sera and presented a single change that differentiated it from Asp49-PLA2s. The Asn28 was conserved in Lys49-PLA2s, but this position in the Asp49-PLA2s was occupied exclusively by tyrosine and this amino acid residue could be responsible for its interaction with both of antivenom sera. The replacement of Asn28→Tyr Asp49-PLA2s did not demonstrate an interaction with either antivenom sera. The other epitope from BthTX-I that was recognized by both of the antivenom sera was 59GCDPKKDRY73 (theoretical pI = 8.18), which was located

near to a β-wing ( Fernandes et al., 2010). The preceding region of the β-wing (70KDRY73) in BthTX-I interacted with both of antivenom sera. This same region in Gefitinib manufacturer BthTX-II (70TDRY73) and BthA-I (70IDSY73) interacted only with the anti-crotalic horse antivenom. In BthTX-I, the lysine at position 70 could be crucial due to its positive charge for the interaction of this sequence with both of the antivenom sera. Furthermore, this amino acid was present in the Lys49-PLA2s from Bothrops genus with the exception of the sequences Bnuf1, Bgod1 and Bgod2. Moreover, GPX6 the comparative analysis with the selected PLA2s showed that the Gly59 and Asp67 could be important amino acids residues for interactions with the antivenom sera based on the replacements of Gly59 → Asn and Asp67 → Lys that are present in BthTX-I. These changes eliminated measurable interactions. The epitopes Leu17–Tyr25 (BthTX-II

– theoretical pI = 5.52) and Ser17–Tyr25 (BthA-I – theoretical pI = 5.24) represented the same regions in both of the Asp49-PLA2s and were located near the Ca2+-binding loop, an important catalytic region in PLA2s. Two other epitopes from BthTX-II were located at the end of the Ca2+-binding loop (37PKDATDRCC45) and in the β-wing (80GVIICGEGT89). Each was determined to have acidic characteristic with theoretical pI’s of 5.95 and 4.0, respectively. The therapeutic action of antivenom serum is based on neutralizing the normal, detrimental activity of enzymes present in venom. Neutralization most likely occurs by the formation of complexes between antibodies in the antivenom and their corresponding target antigens in the venom.